Writing Article Review Sample
The article by Petroglou (et al., 2012) explores nursing staff exposure to the work-related allergens in the hospital context. The authors of the article aim to examine the type and frequency of allergic reactions among the nurses. The study was based on three general hospitals in Athens whereby the data was collected using a questionnaire and statistically analyzed by the use of SPSS. 283 nurses with a mean age of 38 years filled the questionnaire among which 90.1 percent (255) were females, and 9.9 percent (28) were males. The researchers concluded that there was a significant percentage of allergic reactions among the nurses. Secondly, the use gloves and disinfectants had been majorly implicated. Third, some nurses affected by the allergic reactions needed medical treatment. Finally, only a few nurses employed preventive measures to avoid allergic reactions.
The study by Petroglou et al. (2012) aims to address the problem of allergic reactions among the nurses in the hospital set up. In doing so, the authors note that nursing staff exposure to variety allergens creates a critical occupational risk. To address this problem, the authors focused on evaluating the types and frequency of allergic reactions among the nurses in three general hospitals in Athens.
Evaluation of the Literature Review
The authors had no a well-defined literature review, but they appeared to have chained it in the introduction part. First, they explored health care workers who were reported to suffer from an asthma-related cases based case study conducted between 1993 and 1999. In the report, it was revealed that majority of those affected worked in the hospital and the nurses formed the largest percentage (40 percent). In the 1993-1999 study, it was found that the nurses developed allergic asthma as a result of breathing from protein remains on the gloves. Apart from the breathing allergies, another literature found that nurses also developed skin allergies which were mainly of two forms: urticarial and allergic contact. The literature used in this study was developed in 1999, and therefore, it may not be suitable for the study. However, based on the relevance of the literature to this study; this paper perceives that it was appropriate for the authors to refer to it. First, the literature agrees exactly with the phenomenon (occupational allergies among the nursing staff) being investigated. Secondly, the literature avails different forms of occupation allergies among the nursing staff.
Evaluation of Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework is one of the key guidelines that direct the conducting of research among the researchers. The theoretical framework helps the researcher to conduct his study in line with existing theories explanation, prediction, and mastering of the phenomenon under exploration (Swanson, 2013). Amazingly, the study by Petroglou et al. (2012) lacked a theoretical framework. Based on the discipline of this study, the authors could have used nursing theories explaining the development of occupational allergies among the nursing staff workers. For example, it would have been appropriate for the researchers to refer to the Medzhitov Theory that explains the occurrence of allergies among the individuals. The Theory goes ahead to explain main reasons why human have allergies (Zimmer, 2016).
The study assumed that work-related allergens caused the frequent occurrence of allergies among the nurses in the hospital context work-related allergens. The causes of allergy were the independent variables while the occupational allergies were dependent variables. Ideally, the independent variable determines the occurrence and the level of the dependent variable. The existence of components causing allergies in the three general hospitals used in the study determined the number of nurses who developed allergic reactions. These causes (independent variables) were grouped into two broad categories: drug reactions and allergy reactions from the departments. Both independent and dependent variables were qualitative; therefore it is difficult to measure them. The research question and hypothesis are not stated. Nevertheless, the reviewer (reader) can deduce the research question from the article topic. Likewise, the hypothesis.
The study was based on qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The authors used an anonymous questionnaire that was distributed to three general hospitals, Gennimatas, Evaggelismos and Konstantopoulion in Athens whereby they were issued with 120, 500 and 180 questionnaires respectively. The data from the three general hospitals were analyzed using SPSS software windows 10.0.1 version. The data was randomly collected since the researchers did not dictate which nurses who should be given the questionnaire. Therefore, the study used probability sampling. Out of 800 questionnaires distributed to the respondents, only 283 were filled and returned. The 283 respondents who completed the questionnaires formed the ideal sample that was used in the study. Among the completed questionnaires Gennimatas turned in 63 (58 percent), Evaggelismos 115 (23 percent) and Konstantopoulion 105 (58 percent). The respondents who formed up the study sample were both females 255 (90.1 percent) and males 28 (9.9) percent.
Based on the questionnaires distributed and the ones completed the response rate was 35 percent of which the respondents had the mean age of 38 years. The measuring instrument (questionnaire) used in this study was appropriate since it measured what was supposed to be measured and as a result, the researchers were able to come up with the sufficient data to be put into the analysis. The data collection information does not reveal whether the researchers put the ethical considerations into practice. However, bearing in mind that the participants were not forced to fill the questionnaires and assuming that they were informed of the purpose of the research, the study was ethically conducted.
As noted above the data used in this study was analyzed using SPSS software windows 10.0.1 version. The analyzed data was then presented in four tables. The first table presented the number of nurses per department who reported allergic reaction cases among all the participants who returned the questionnaires. The second table presented the analyzed data on the sources of allergic reactions with a more focus on drugs. Third table presented causes assumed to have caused allergic reactions in each department. The fourth table presented the preventive strategies that nurses employed after realizing they had developed allergic reactions.
First, it was noted that response rate (35 percent) was too small putting into consideration the severity of the phenomenon being examined. The number of nurses who reported allergic reactions was 53 percent. Based on the data analysis and the number of questionnaires which were completed these number would have been higher if more than half of participants would have responded. Besides, there was no huge correspondence among the nurses equipped with allergy protecting facilities such as disinfectants and latex gloves in the highly allergic areas. Further, the study established that nurses who used gloves and antiseptics-disinfectants to protect themselves from allergy reactions had been implicated. The researchers also judged that for the last two decades, the cases latex allergies among the nurses had been significantly increasing.
Upon discussing the data analysis results, the study came up with four major conclusions. First, the international literature agrees exactly with the phenomenon (occupational allergies among the nursing staff) being investigated. Secondly, the literature avails different forms of occupation allergies among the nursing staff. Third, some nurses affected by the allergic reactions needed medical treatment. Finally, only a few nurses employed preventive measures to avoid allergic reactions. In concluding so, the study can be attributed to being having significant implications for the future studies and hospitals as well. For example, the research is helpful for hospitals to understand the types and the causes of allergens that are likely to affect nurses in their day to day work activities. The study was also effective in influencing the hospitals to initiative robust protective strategies that could prevent nurses from developing work-related allergy reactions. Notably, the study by Petroglou et al. (2012) paved the way for more research to investigate the most robust allergy preventive strategies that nurses are supposed to use.
In finalizing the review; this paper takes a recap of key strengths and weaknesses identifiable in the study. To begin with the positive side, the study has solely focused on collecting data, analyzing data, presenting the results and discussing the results. Of course, these are key areas of any research paper, and the authors have presented them very well. Secondly, the nurses in three hospitals were used as the target population, hence increasing the scope of the study. However, the study has omitted three key parts, literature review, conceptual framework and ethical consideration which are mandatory for any peer-reviewed journal article. Alternatively, confining the research design to only two tools, questionnaire and SPSS puts the validity and reliability of the study results in doubt. Therefore, this paper recommends for the inclusion of literature review, conceptual framework, ethical consideration, and application of at least two qualitative and two quantitative techniques in this study to make it more professional and meet the requirements of the journal article.