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Why Study Hate Crime or State Crime

Why Study Hate Crime or State Crime

Part 1  Discussion ONLY 300 wordsWhy Study Hate Crime, School Shootings or State Crime?

PROMPT: After reviewing the Alvarez and Bachman readings and recorded lecture materials for the week,

Required Reading: Alvarez & Bachman, “Mass Murder In School” pp. 114-16; Chapter 8, “Hate Crime,” pp. 229-254 (provided below).

post a discussion that makes the case for the importance of studying one of the three topics examined in this module: mass murder (or shootings) in school, hate crime or state violence. Provide a specific example (with page number) from the Alvarez and Bachman chapter or from my powerpoint that backs up your assertion to examine one of these three topics, e.g., commenting on its prevalence and changes over time (incidence), issues of social harm, victims or assailants involved. etc. Respond to others about the concerns they identify.

Note: Although it sounds to be an obvious question about the need to study the kinds of violence identified here, consider the federal Dickey Amendment that has been in place since the 1990s in the U.S., and has limited the ability of federal agencies to funds studies that examine gun violence, especially if policy recommendations advocate any kinds of limits on gun availability. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dickey_Amendment. The Dickey Amendment is still in force, although it was recently liberalized in response to a number of high profile mass shootings.

Alvarez, A., & Bachman, R. (2021). Chapter 1 Defining Violence. In Violence: The enduring problem (4th ed., pp. 229-254). essay, SAGE Publishing, Inc.Part 2 

Alvarez, A., & Bachman, R. (2021). Chapter 1 Defining Violence. In Violence: The enduring

 problem (4th ed., pp. 368-378). essay, SAGE Publishing, Inc.

OVERVIEW: The objective of this assignment is to build skills on how to identify research sources, construct an annotated bibliography and identify key similarities or dissimilarities among articles. To do this, choose ONE OF THREE topics covered in this module: Mass Murder (Shootings) in Schools, Hate Crimes/Violence OR or State Violence. These are three distinct areas of research, but my intention is that you pursue an area of inquiry with which you have the most interest.

Learning how to identify and comprehend research sources is a key skill required for learning how to conduct and analyze social scientific and scientific research. Such research by necessity relies on previous research work that establishes knowledge about “what we know” about a particular phenomenon. Relying on published research that goes through academic peer review or that is published in credible scholarly books or research monographs avoids the problem of misinformation, i.e. one has to establish their basis of knowledge by referencing credible and verifiable sources. For example, the Alvarez and Bachman book claims to summarize credible and verifiable information on the topic of violence by referencing sources of primary research (see their endnotes and endnote references). Further, credible research sources are usually subject to verification by academic institutions, government agencies, policy organizations or other researchers that may challenge another’s research finding (e.g., peer review).

For this assignment, the research sources you use must be academic articles published in research journals, i.e., not written by a journalists (who often synthesize primary research done by others) or social media commentators who often post personal opinions not backed up by credible and verifiable data (see module link “Scholarly Versus Journalistic/Popular Press Articles” linked here to learn more about these distinctions). To assure that you use only academic articles you are instructed to use the Criminal Justice Database, which contains articles from hundreds of journals, to complete this assignment (see below). In having you rely on academic research articles, I am not diminishing the important scholarship and research done in published books or high quality media journals such as The New Yorker or The Atlantic, but using research articles is the most efficient way to serve the objectives of this assignment.INSTRUCTIONS: The first task of this assignment is to identify the three articles you want to use for the assignment. The articles must be on U.S.-based research and written in last 20 years, and be similar in research focus (e.g., measurements of violence, typical victims and offenders, causal circumstances or conditions, policies and prevention, etc – see below and my posted video for completing this assignment). Also, you should be able to comprehend the study for purposes of summarizing and presenting it, i.e., it should not be too sophisticated in its use of analytic techniques (such as the use of complicated quantiative methodologies) or theoretical principles.

To locate articles, access the  “Criminal Justice Database” described earlier at https://www-proquest-com.libproxy.library.wmich.edu/criminaljusticeperiodicals/advanced?accountid=15099. This link should take you to the “Advanced Search” option for the database (see screenshot below). Be sure that you are logged onto your Wmich account to gain access. See sample screenshot below for what the page should look like (Note: if the link provided does not take you directly to the database, go to the WMUlibrary website at https://wmich.edu/library, and click on the “databases” tab – left side about mid-page. The link takes you to a page listing “A-Z Databases.” On the right you will find a “find a database” request option, where you should write “Criminal Justice Database.”) 

Searching the Criminal Justice Database: Once on the database you will find several command lines where you can put in key words and phrases for your search. As an example (see screenshot below), I put in “hate crime” for the primary search and “religious” on an additional line to narrow the focus. You also should make sure that you choose to search “anywhere” in text to maximize results, and choose the “full text” option for what you want your search to provide for your viewing. In addition, to make sure you adhere to the parameters of the assignment, be sure to do the following before conducting your search: a) Under the option “specific date range,” choose 2002 to 2022; b) Under the text box labeled “Source Type,” scroll down & click “Scholarly Journal”; c) Under the text box labeled “Document Type,” scroll down and choose “Article”; d) Under the Language text box, choose “English.” These steps will assure that you will adhere to the directions of the assignment, and YOU WILL BE GRADED DOWN especially if you choose sources that are not articles from scholarly journals. See the screenshot below that provides a visual for the steps I am describing here.

Now you can start searching for relevant articles. Note that you will want to refine your search by subtopic with the objective of finding three articles with a similar research focus. For example, perhaps you are interesed in finding articles on hate crimes that are directed at likely victims and offenders. Then you can designate key words or phrases that pertain to the specific groups that you surmise are most likely to be victims of hate crimes, and confine your search along these lines (e.g., hate crimes directed at specific religious groups, etc.). Other subtopics guiding your search might include that key words or phrases that pertain to the characteristics of assailants, prevalence and rates of change (incidence) over time, methods of perpetrating violence (e.g, do assailants use arson, guns, some other method??), etc. If examining mass shootings in schools or state violence, search subtopics might include prevalance and incidence, policies and prevention, characteristics of those caught up in such incidents, etc. If searching for articles on state crime, you should be specific and search under police use of force, police shootings or police killings. You should use the Alvarez and Bachman or my lecture/powerpoint to help identify key words and phrases. For example, Alvarez and Bachman begin their chapters going over the scope of a specific problem (data on prevalence and incidence) and then explore specific subtopics. They also identify common victims and offenders associated with hate crimes and school shootings. For the material on state violence, most of this discussion will be from my lecture where I examine police excessive force and related matters that can help you designate key words or phrases for identifying key themes tying articles together and narrowing your searches.

After you have identified the three articles WITH SIMILAR THEMES that you want to examine, you may proceed to the second task of this assignment, constructing your annotated bibiography. An annotated bibliography needs to include the following: 1) Full Reference (name of article, authors, journal in which article is published with showing volume, number, & year published – See “Sample Annotated Bibliography” or “Quickguide Chicago Manual of Style” linked below to find samples of acceptable formats for referencing sources. NOTE: PROQUEST OR OTHER SEARCH ENGINES ARE NOT JOURNALS – journal titles are listed with articles themselves; 2) Research Question (what is the article about)? 3) Research Method (what is the data source and how was data collected??); 4) the “so-what” of the research, i.e., a couple of sentences outlining key findings, conclusions or causal arguments, including key concepts or theories identified and applied. See the attached “Sample Annotated Bibliography for Sociology” posted in this module (below) to get a sense of how an annotated bibiography should look (either APA or MLA format). You must also link the URL showing the online location of your article so I can view it if need be.

Task three: End your assignment with paragraph that addresses the ways in which the pieces you chose for your annotated bibliography are similar or disimilar to one another in terms of their findings or theoretical perspectives (do not comment on less distinctions such as site of study or method used unless these are central to the findings of the research). If there are key disagreements or disputes among the researchers, point these out.

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