Thinking Skills Based Outcomes

Thinking Skills Based Outcomes

Design learning outcomes based on the thinking skills levels of the identified student
Challenging Level Of Learning Outcomes (Task 4c)
The learning outcomes are specific and challenging but achievable
Learning Outcomes Related To Identified Students (Task 4c)
Learning outcomes are related to identified students.

Designing Learning Outcomes based on the Thinking Skills Levels

Learning outcomes refers to statements of abilities, skills, and knowledge that students should have by the end of the learning process. And therefore, they play a crucial role in a student’s learning process, and this is because they state what students are expected to understand as well as what they are expected to do. And the way the outcomes are written affects the quality of learning in the learning process of the students. It is, therefore, important that teaching should be directly linked to the expected learning outcomes (Kumpas-Lenk et al., 2018). The expected learning outcomes of the students should also determine the assessment items. Teaching thinking skills to weather forecasters requires mental stamina and dedication.

There are various thinking skills that students can learn; however, they are not taught in the same manner. Researchers have come up with learning classification systems such as Bloom’s Taxonomy that classifies the learning behaviors of students, and in so doing, they have helped educators to know how learners think and perform certain learning tasks (Hyder & Bhamani, 2016).  The most popular or widely used classification system is Bloom’s Taxonomy, and this is because it helps educators to differentiate learning outcomes according to thinking skills and their complexity level. As educators, it is important to use the taxonomy of Bloom to support the learning process of every student. The understanding of the different thinking levels can assist students in performing better in tests, examinations, or any other assignments. The following table shows the learning outcomes of the students who are training to be weather forecasters based on their levels of thinking skills.

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Cognitive skill Cognitive tasks Learning outcomes Assessment
`Remembering Memorize or Remember, principles, definitions, and concepts. 1. Students will be able  to define the spatial resolution of the NWP model

2. List various ways of finding the vertical and horizontal resolution.


Use of multiple-choice assignments



Explain, illustrate, classify, interpret or infer something about forecasting


1. Students will be able to state the type of forecasting parameters that will have improved accuracy.

2. Students will be able to explain how precipitation prediction may be improved.

3. Students will be able to communicate effectively to convey the information.


Use of multiple-choice assignments

Use of true or false questions




Use knowledge acquired to make small decisions or judgment.



1. The students will be able to determine if a provided situation would likely be forecasted well using the given NWP model.

2. The students will be able to use the NWP model to describe the atmospheric state.


Use of short answer or word answer


Analyzing Determine the most relevant information. 1. The students will be able to analyze the NWP model to establish areas of possible severe high winds, poor visibility, wind shear, and convection. Use of discussion/essay questions

Use of oral questions

Use of student debates


Evaluating Judging, pointing out consistency  or monitoring based on standards 1. The students will be able to determine the possible sources of error available in the NWP forecast model.

2. The students will be able to incorporate NWP models into the process of forecasting.

3. The students will be able to recommend guidelines for selecting NWP products for particular weather situations.

Use of student debates in groups of 5 students
Creating Combine and organize information gathered 1. The students will be able to put information together to come up with coherent information in a new way.

2. The Students will be able to  understand the forecasting task and create solutions

End year examinations


Cottrell, S. (2017). Critical thinking skills: Effective analysis, argument, and reflection. Macmillan International Higher Education.

Hyder, I., & Bhamani, S. (2016). Bloom’s taxonomy (cognitive domain) in higher education settings: Reflection brief. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 3(2), 288-300.

Kerslake, L., & Wegerif, R. (Eds.). (2018). Theory of teaching thinking: international perspectives. Routledge.

Kumpas-Lenk, K., Eisenschmidt, E., & Veispak, A. (2018). Does the design of learning outcomes matter from the students’ perspective?. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 59, 179-186.

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