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Social Work Theory and Ethics

Social Work Theory and Ethics

Social work theories refer to the overall explanations evidenced by scientific methods. An argument can explain several phenomena, for example, human behavior through a description of how humans react with each other or how such humans respond to a particular stimulus (Simmons, 2014). It can be a theory explaining how humans react to a rise in living standards or the cause of one’s changing behavior. It is through social work practices that social workers learn how to implement such approaches. Through such practice models, workers get a blueprint on how to help others through the use of the social work theory. It is through the practice theory that one can use the social work theories to create change. There are several theories that social workers can use depending on the nature of client at hand. These theories make it possible for the possible work to be able to identify what might be making someone behave the way he or she acts. In the case of Mrs. Maggie Nolan, as a social work student at the Belconnen High School, I will be able to use observational learning theory which is a theory under psychological perspective and engaged approach which is under sociological perspective to help Maggie be able to identify the cause of Molly’s difficulties. THIS IS A SAMPLE ORDER YOUR PAPER NOW

To begin with observational learning, (Albert, 2014) views it as learning whose roots are one’s daily observation of other people’s behaviors. It takes place in various varied forms hence becoming a social learning process. There is no need for any reinforcement for this learning to take place in one’s life. A role model is required for this learning to take place. For example, Molly’s difficulties probably have got their roots from what she has been observing both at her present home and in the school. Being fourteen years of age, it is clear that she sees what her mother does with her current man despite her being married to her (Molly’s) biological father. When one is in their tender age like Molly, a model becomes anyone who has their responsibility in such child’s life. What a child observes, imitates or remembers becomes a basis of such child’s way of living. Therefore, probably, Molly has generally become aggressive due to how his environment has been treating her. For example, it is entirely possible for a child to start abusing drugs depending on how his or her models do. If the child is born of a father who likes getting the drug, then probably such a child begins getting a drug. Through observational learning, children continuously learn either desirable or undesirable ways of living (Shettleworth, 2010). Environment, behavior, and cognition incorporate to determine how a child behaves and lives as suggested by observational learning theory.

It is through diffusion chain that the behavior of a child’s model spreads to the child. Additionally, it is through Molly’s mother behavior of not being respectful of her marriage that Molly decided change her behavior completely. The practice has gone down from another person to her (Hughes, 2011). This probably is because Maggie is her role model. Oneness in a family plays a very significant role in making observational learning the dominant theory in bringing up upright and a happy family. Parental love plays a very significant role in how children behave.

Culture is a primary ingredient in enabling observational learning turn in to a determinant methodology of how one behaves.  It expects children to be part of some cultural practices that expose them to various methodologies and roles every time (Shimpi, Akhtar, & Moore, 2013). Through this exposure, children observe and learn various activities that help them grow straightforward. It could be ideal if Maggie could have allowed her three children to live in their home place. This could have helped Molly learn what the society expects of her. For example, when a child goes to school in his or her matrimonial home place, such kid learns with ease as he or she doesn’t face difficulties such as racism. The critical importance of this theory is to help the affected use their observation techniques to acquire good behaviors from other people. According to (Albert, 2014), environment is a great determinant of how people behave. The environment that Molly has been living within has really contributed a lot to her present aggressive behaviors. THIS IS A SAMPLE ORDER YOUR PAPER NOW

Through what one observes be it positive or negative, their life changes drastically following such a channel (Zentall, 2012). Molly’s life has been full of challenges. She has not had an easy life in her school. Racism has been a talk of the day. This has made her to hate going to school. It is really hard to separate a child from their models. Therefore, for such children to be able to behave accordingly, then the models must do activities that will implicate positively to their young ones. For instance, it is through the racism that Molly has been getting from the school that has made her hate her school. This role modeling at the tender age makes children use observational learning theory in multiple dimensions of life. It means that Molly has got very attentive observational skills which have made her be able change to her way of life depending on what the environment has presented to her. She has naturally learnt that her school environment is not ideal for her. She has since hated Canberra and believes that if she goes to Geraldton she might probably have a happy life there. This is particularly because, through observation, she is able to realize if the community she lives with appreciates or does not appreciate their actions. Albert identified four stages that have to take place for observational learning to be effective (Albert, 2014).

To begin with, attention, a child has to be attentive to what is going on around them for them to be able to learn what is going on accurately. Molly, for instance, has been able to observe that Canberra is not an ideal place for her to live. How attentive one mostly influences this process stage is on seeing what has been going on around them. Secondly, retention, the child must be able to remember all the past happening in their life (Schaffer, 2010). Molly has been able to recognize that experience with her father was a good one, and that is why she is determined to go back to her father. Thirdly, initiation is the ability of the child to initiate what he or she wants in life. Molly has been able to adopt aggressive behaviors for her to make her mother see sense on her desire to go back to her mother. Lastly but not the least, the child must be motivated to begin such a behavior. The motivator of Molly’s desire to behave aggressively is her desire to go back to her father.

Secondly, an engaged theory is a method that helps one, for example, a social worker understands social complexity (Gangi & Wasko, 2016). Either social life or social relations are the basis of the engaged theory. For human beings, the social part of life is embodied in nature. For instance Maggie, Molly’s aggressive behavior might be based on the kind of experience of living the girl is going through. For her to begin avoiding going to school, that means something is happening in the school that she finds undesirable (Claussen, Kretschmer, & Mayrhofer, 2013).  This theory offers a detailed procedure on how to analyze life events in a bid to understand life events. An engaged approach is part of bigger critical theory perspective. It goes across several fields such as sociology and history. Therefore, history of Molly’s life might be the primary cause of her aggressive behavior. Engaged theory engages world events in a bid to transform the world. Thus the argument is a part of the extended universe. It is majorly concerned about what caused what and why it happened the way it happened (Geyer & Krumay, 2015). Thus it is good to look at what caused the change in Molly’s behavior and why. It is very possible to change the girl’s behavior through searching for the source of her life complications.

Happenings of the day have a significant effect on one’s behavior (Hair, Ringle, & Sarstedt, 2011).  The racism Molly is experiencing in school might have had a very substantial impact on her life hence, leading to her present aggressive behaviors (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). This is the tendency of the engaged theory to be affected by the daily happenings. For one to have a change, there is a need for that person to be free. Therefore it will be of significant advantage if Molly could be allowed to have her freedom by going back to her father. It is of great significance to get the source of the issues that Molly is going through. I see it is an excellent advantage to interrogate Molly and possibly know if she has a solution to the problems she is going through (Lehmann, Lalmas, Yom-Tov, & Dupret, 2012). This will be the basis for helping her since she is the only one who has an idea of what she believes is ideal for her.

To begin with, the engaged theory requires a collection of data leading to a particular occurrence in a bid to solve the deal. This is why we have to get to the bottom of might be making Molly behave aggressively. We can even go ahead and observe what she likes doing when she is alone in her regular duties. This can highly give us a proper direction towards solving the ordeal (Di Gangi & Wasko, 2016). Going to the extent of even observing secretly those people who might be exposing the child to racism and taking them to court for such an offense might as well help solve the menace for once and for all. Going through all the levels of analyzing the claims Molly will give out, will be a good move towards addressing the big underlying menace.

Social theory is seen to be an argument in concern to a social ordeal. It is a theory that is more of an approach working towards analyzing all the happenings that might have influenced Molly’s change in behavior. Through the use of the integrated methods that the theory provides, Molly can change her behavior and fit well to the Canberra way of living. Human practices are based on the formation of knowledge. That means, there must be a cause as to Molly has begun hating Canberra way of life. Understanding her past ways of life will also be of significant advantage as one’s previous way of life dramatically influences his or her means of survival. Therefore, the entity that Molly had in Geraldton might have shaped her life. She could be seeing those memories better than the current life she is experiencing in Canberra.

Advantages of Observational learning theory

It is through the parents and models that children learn skills (Burdick, 2014). They tend to pick almost everything that their parents do. The primary reinforcement for observational learning is imitation. How a child is reared profoundly influences their way of life (Groenendijk, Janssen, Rijlaarsdam, & Bergh, 2017). That is why Molly’s idea of has been affected by the kind of treatment she is receiving from school. To add to the point, the interaction of a child with their both parents increases chances for that particular child to imitate what their parents do (Van Gog & Rummel, 2010).

Observational learning is paramount when it comes to the well being of a child. If a child has been exposed to fair life treatments, then chances of the child growing morally are always very high, because the child through observational learning adapts to the happenings around him or her. The possibilities are high that any child exposed to the friendly environment will probably end up showing positive behaviors in their life for example; if a child is raised up in a place where the young people respond to the elderly respectively will end up being respectful to the elderly. On the contrary, a child exposed to violence ends up acquiring violent behaviors such as fighting, use of weapons and abusive words. This means that one reason based on the environment he or she has been raised in.

Disadvantages of Observational Learning Theory

For as long as the theory advocates for imitation of models behavior as the primary source of children behavior, it fails to acknowledge that genetic conditions such as psychiatric disorders could also be significant sources of aggressive behaviors in children (Simning, Wijngaarden, & Conwell, 2011). A child might have inherited their aggressive behaviors from their parents through gene inheritance. Similarly, mothers who suffer from depression tend to be less concerned about their children. This might also expose those children to aggressive behaviors. Therefore the observational learning theory fails to acknowledge that the impairments have an impact on one’s behavior. Through research, it was found out that those individuals, who have been diagnosed with disabilities, are most likely to be involved in violent activities or having aggressive behaviors (Miller, Grabell, Thomas, Bermann, & Graham-Bermann, 2012).

Advantages of Engaged Theory

Sociology entails the study of society as a whole. The family unit and organization help a lot to determine the behavior of an individual. The manner, in which the surrounding does changes, does affect how one relates to the other.  An engaged theory being a subset of sociological perspective has several advantages as discussed below

To begin with, the exciting approach helps in decision making; to start with, it is easy to decide on what affects a particular individual without getting an in-depth knowledge of the person’s environment. This is because; the context in which one is subjected to poses a more significant impact on the person’s ways of life. For one to tackle a problem, for example, immediate aggressive behavior requires one to establish what exactly might have caused the complication. It through engaged theory, as part of the broader sociological perspective, that one can realize what might have created such a menace. THIS IS A SAMPLE ORDER YOUR PAPER NOW

Engaged theory promotes civic competence. It is through social studies that one learns how to make shrewd decisions on every issue that he or she is faced with. Society is interdependence; therefore through engaged theory, one can understand that every happening in one’s life affects their life in whole.

Disadvantages of Engaged Theory

Despite the highly anticipated need for sociological approaches to life situation, application of exciting theory to solve life problems is still limited. Various life issues have highly been neglected while others are highly developed (Zielinski & Robertson, 2013). One’s behavior is highly based on psychological factors rather than sociological factors. Some factors such as motivation, social class and cross-cultural effects to one’s life are rarely considered (Sever, 2012). This is a problem since for example cross-cultural factors can change the one life. Take for instance; Molly’s behavior might have changed because she had become familiar with the experience at Geraldton.

References

Albert, B. (2014). Observational Learning. In J. H. Byrn, Learning and Memory (pp. 482-484). New York: Macmillan Referance USA.

Burdick, C. L. (2014). The Merits, Limitations, and Modifications of Applying Bandura’s Social Learning Theory to Understanding African American Children’s Exposure to Violence . American International Journal of Social Science, 183 – 191.

Claussen, J., Kretschmer, T., & Mayrhofer, P. (2013). The effects of rewarding user engagement: The case of Facebook apps. Information Systems Research, 186-200.

Di Gangi, P. M., & Wasko, M. M. (2016). Social Media Engagement Theory: Exploring the Influence of User Engagement on Social Media Usage. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, 53-73.

Gangi, P. M., & Wasko, M. M. (2016). Social Media Engagement Theory. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, 53 – 73.

Geyer, S., & Krumay, B. (2015). Development of a Social Media Maturity Model–A Grounded Theory Approach. Paper presented at the 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.

Groenendijk, T., Janssen, T., Rijlaarsdam, G., & Bergh, H. v. (2017). The effect of observational learning on students’ performance, processes,and motivation in two creative domains. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 35 – 45.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 139 – 152.

Hughes, C. (2011). Social Understanding and Social Lives. In C. Hughes. New York, Ny: Psychology Press.

Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media. opportunities of social media, 59 – 68.

Lehmann, J., Lalmas, M., Yom-Tov, E., & Dupret. (2012). Models of user engagement User Modeling, Adaptation, and Personalization. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 164-175.

Miller, L. E., Grabell, A., Thomas, A., Bermann, E., & Graham-Bermann, S. (2012). The associations between community violence, television violence, intimate partner violence, parent–child aggression, and aggression in sibling relationships of a sample of preschoolers. Psychology of Violence, 165-178.

Schaffer, D. e. (2010). Developmental Psychology. Childhood and Adolescence, 284.

Sever, M. (2012). A critical look at the theories of sociology of education. International Journal of Human Sciences, 650 – 671.

Shettleworth, S. J. (2010). Cognition, Evolution, and Behavior. New York: Oxford.

Shimpi, P. M., Akhtar, N., & Moore, C. (2013). Toddlers Imitative Learning in Interactive and Observational Contexts: The Role of Age and Familiarity of the Model. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 309 – 323.

Simmons, S. (2014, May 6). Theories Used in Social Work Practice & Practice Models. Retrieved from Socialwork@simmons: https://socialwork.simmons.edu/theories-used-social-work-practice/

Simning, A. V., Wijngaarden, E., & Conwell, Y. (2011). Anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in united states african-american public housing residents. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 983 – 992.

Van Gog, T., & Rummel, N. (2010). Example-based learning: integrating cognitive. Educational Psychology Review, 155- 174.

Zentall, T. R. (2012). Perspectives On Observational Learning In Animals. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 114 – 128.

Zielinski, J., & Robertson, T. S. (2013). Consumer Behavior Theory: Excesses and Limitations”, in NA – Advances in Consumer Research Volume 09, eds. Andrew Mitchell, Ann Abor, MI. Association for Consumer Research, 8 – 12.

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