Science and Technology Expository Essay
ENGR/HIST 108, SUM 22
Essay 1, Due:
Please follow the Instructions carefully. You may lose points for not following the directions.1. Answer only ONE question from the following 3 questions.
2. It is an Expository essay, not a research paper. By definition, the purpose of expository writing is to explain something accurately and educate the reader. You have to collect facts from the assigned readings.
3. Your answer must be in a short essay between 850 and 950 words.
4. Be explicit and explain the concept clearly. Answer all questions and sub-questions.
5. Avoid general/irrelevant statements. Avoid flabby sentences. Do not employ general expressions such as “Technology had a deep impact on our life.”
6. Try to keep a logical track in your explanations: Start with a short but clear reference to the background of the topic, then explain the topic as clear as you can, and finally, specify its importance/influence.
7. Do not use any direct quotations but give references to indirect quotes. Everything must be based on your own understanding of the reading materials and in your own words.
8. Use any style that you like (MLA, APA…) but be consistent.
9. Essay should have a title (or prompt number) and carry your name, and course number.
10. Submission by email is not acknowledged. No late submissions is accepted.
11. Do not email your essay to me (or the TAs)
1. Read articles by Skolimowski (Structure of thinking in technology) and Mario Bunge (Technology as applied science), both posted under Week 1 Required Readings, and write an essay about:
• How does Skolimowski differentiates between science and technology? How does he define progress in science and in technology?
• How does Skolimowski connect the concept of “better” to Praxiology (or Praxeology)?
• How does Bunge define pure science, applied science and technology?
• What is Bunge’s definitions of technological theories (substantive and operative) and their characteristics?
• Why Bunge claims that the technological theories are less deep than scientific theories?
2. In the article “The Reign of the Farmer,” McClellan and Dorn explain that “complementing the many techniques and skills involved in farming and husbandry, several ancillary technologies arose as part of the shift to the Neolithic.
i. What were those technologies? Categorize them and explain the importance of each one.
ii. How did those technologies impact the mixed economy of the early civilizations?3. Read Lindberg’s chapter “Science before the Greeks”, and “Ancient Mathematical Sources” (from Encyclopedia Britannica, posted on Canvas, week 2) and
• Explain the main achievements in astronomy and mathematics in ancient Babylonian and Egyptian civilizations.
➢ It is better to arrange the content under four subtitles: • Egyptian Mathematics
• Egyptian Astronomy + Calendars
• Babylonian Mathematics
• Babylonian Astronomy + Calendars