Psychological Changes in Pregnant Woman
Describe the psychological changes that take place during pregnancy, specifically during each trimester, and how the mother’s partner can respond to the pregnancy.
Pregnancy is one of the most celebrated events in the woman’s life, especially when she was psychologically prepared, and ready to conceive. Despite the happiness, a pregnant woman experiences mixed reactions including intense depression, fatigue and worrisome. During pregnancy women become worried of the possible bodily challenges, the capability of being mothers, particularly for the first time mothers and fear of childbirth as discussed by (Rathus, Nevid, and Fichner, 2017). The studies shows that such changes are good since they help a woman to adapt and prepare for the motherhood. The levels of emotions, fear and worry continue to vary as the pregnancy develops leading to different psychological changes at different stages of the pregnancy, which are first trimester, second trimester and third trimester.Psychological changes are usually emotionally instigated and they are characterized by moods and attitudes, which are mainly caused by hormonal changes in the body. Besides the hormone variations, women psychological changes especially during the first trimester might be caused by external factors such as fear of losing independence, negative attitude towards life after birth, family support, financial concerns and whether the conception was planned or unplanned. At this stage, a woman would experience psychological changes such as joy, happiness, excitement, tearfulness, worry, anticipation and disbelief (Rathus, Nevid, and Fichner, 2017). The emotional fluctuations during this trimester can either be positive or negative depending on several factors such as pregnancy ailments or external factors mentioned above.
The second trimester is characterized by the lessened emotional fluctuations, which studies attribute to reduction of progesterone levels in the woman’s body. The pregnancy-related ailments such as nausea and insomnia also reduce, and as a result, the negative feelings drop. At this stage, a lot of pregnant women would have adapted to the changes in their body, and as such the case of depression and anxiety are much lower than the first trimester. However, as it is in the first trimester, the cases of fatigue may continue especially when the woman lacks enough iron in the body.
The third trimester marks, the last stage of the woman pregnancy and it is one of the most tiresome phases. The pregnancy grows increasing the weight, which often disturbs the woman’s sleep. The psychological condition of a woman at this stage can be almost related to the first trimester. The emotional fluctuations increases as mother continues to feel more discomfort as a result of increased backache, tiredness and insomnia. The third trimester marks the link between the end of pregnancy and the transition to the motherhood, and as such, a mother and her partner would experience severe psychological changes such as internal reorganization, external reorganization and pregnancy-related anxiety.
The internal reorganization exercised by mother and her partner in the last trimester involves rediscovering their self-identities of translating into parenthood. The external reorganization entails the mother reflecting her relationship with other family members once she gives birth. The pregnancy related anxiety involves the repetition of the psychological changes experienced during the first and second trimesters. The psychological changes in the third trimester are mainly in line with reflective functioning, mental representation and object relationship. In the last phase of pregnancy women reflect on their state of mind, and appreciate their status. The mental representation at this stage helps the expectant woman to imagine the new changes in her life that are likely to happen that perhaps she has never experienced. The mental representation is a crucial practice since it helps the woman to psychologically adapt parenthood transition that is about to occur. The object relationship makes a woman to view herself as a mother my identifying her motherhood to her own mother.Pregnancy is accompanied by major psychological transformations in women. It is the beginning of new journey that ends once she becomes a parent. The transition to the new identify of a parent presents a series of complicated psychological process to the women. A woman has to adapt to several changes including emotional fluctuations and anxiety of a being a mother.
Describe the factors of marital satisfaction and if there is a link between sexual satisfaction and marital satisfaction.
Marriage is like a flower, and it if not taken care of, it will eventually wither. Several studies have conclude that one of the key determinants of the emotional stability among the partners in marriage is the marital satisfaction. In successful marriages, both the females and males are satisfied by one another. In the last two decades, studies have linked marital satisfaction to several factors including communication, personality qualities, sexual satisfaction, belief and demographic similarities, partner attachment and love.
People may be interested by those who they believe or they appear to share certain similar characteristics, a tendency which is known as homogamy. Homogamy is associated with several aspects including similarity in religious beliefs, attractiveness, socioeconomic status, physical attractiveness and same age (Rathus, Nevid, and Fichner, 2017).. The case of hegemony is true because in the cultural diversity context, people would mainly select partners whom they share similar traits, for example, racial or ethnic characteristics. Homogamy has been found to reduce marital problems since partners who share same backgrounds, personalities and attitudes are unlikely to engage in conflicts as proved by several studies.Personality qualities is another factor that is linked to romantic relationships. For example, persons who possess impressive personality qualities are likely to keep their partners happy unlike the neuroticism, and as such the people with negative attitude experience negative marital outcomes. Unlike neuroticism, the spouses who are extraverts tend to have joyful and happy marriage, which in return translates into marital satisfaction. However, the extraversion has been found to have more positive results on females than on males, with wives’ extraversion increasing marital happiness among the husbands. Other factors that increases marital satisfaction are conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness in marriage. When the three factors are practiced, the spouse feels free and close to another since they trust each other.
Sexual satisfaction is a debatable factor on whether it is a determinant of marital satisfaction. Several studies have been conducted to explore the debate, and they have conclusively found that sexual satisfaction has a direct connection with marital happiness. However, the psychological studies have argued that sexual satisfaction will lead to marital satisfaction if they are characterized by positive behaviors from both partners. For example, a partner will be more satisfied if her colleague offers compliments, shows non-sexual affection and expresses attraction and love as put forward by (Rathus, Nevid, and Fichner, 2017).
Marital satisfaction does not occur naturally, but through conformance to certain factors. A partner will be interested in one another if they share similar personal qualities. Perhaps this explains why marriages of spouse of similar race or ethnicity tends to work out compared to racially mixed marriages. Joy, happiness and openness also contribute to marriage satisfaction, and especially when they are expressed by the wife. Finally, sexual satisfaction is another fundamental aspect behind a happy marriage. However, it works effectively if it is accompanied by attraction and love.