Nursing Theories and their Applications
Nursing Theories Classification
Nursing theories can be classified into various categories, including:
Needs theories: focus on the basic needs of individuals and their response to illness.
Grand theories: comprehensive frameworks that address the overall nature of nursing and health.
Middle-range theories: more specific than grand theories and provide a bridge between grand theories and nursing practice.
Practice theories: specific to nursing practice and guide the delivery of nursing care.
Conceptual models: depict the relationships between concepts and provide a structure for nursing practice and research.
Situational theories: describe how individuals respond to specific situations and provide guidance for nursing practice in specific circumstances.
Each of these categories provides a unique perspective on the nature of nursing and health, and helps guide the development of nursing practices and research.Nursing Theories Classifications and their Applications
- Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory categorizes human needs into five levels, including physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, and self-actualization needs.
- Dorothy Orem’s Self-Care Deficit theory emphasizes the importance of individuals taking responsibility for their own health and well-being.
- The theories can be applied to guide the assessment of patients’ needs, prioritize interventions, and evaluate outcomes.
- Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring proposes that caring is central to nursing and is an essential aspect of the nurse-patient relationship.
- Rosemarie Rizzo Parse’s Man-Living-Health theory views health as a holistic, human experience and considers the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual dimensions of health.
- Grand theories provide a comprehensive framework for nursing practice and can be used to guide the development of nursing education, research, and policies.
- Roy Adaptation Model views individuals as adaptive systems who respond to stimuli in their environment.
- Orem’s Self-Care Deficit theory (discussed above in the context of needs theories) is also considered a middle-range theory.
- Middle-range theories provide a more specific, practical framework for nursing practice, research, and education and can be used to guide patient care, develop interventions, and evaluate outcomes.
- Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Deficit theory (discussed above in the context of needs and middle-range theories) is also considered a practice theory.
- Roy’s Adaptation Model (discussed above in the context of middle-range theories) is also considered a practice theory.
- Practice theories provide guidance for the delivery of nursing care, including assessment, intervention, and evaluation.
- Roy’s Adaptation Model (discussed above in the context of middle-range and practice theories) is also considered a conceptual model.
- Gordon’s 11 Functional Health Patterns provides a framework for nursing assessment, including patterns related to health perception/health management, nutrition, elimination, activity/exercise, sleep/rest, cognition/perception, self-perception/self-concept, role/relationship, sexuality, coping/stress tolerance, and values/beliefs.
- Conceptual models provide a structure for nursing practice and research, helping to guide assessment, intervention, and evaluation.
- Peggy Chinn and Maeona Kramer’s Theory of Chronic Sorrow describes the ongoing emotional response of individuals who have experienced a chronic loss, such as a chronic illness.
- Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model (discussed above in the context of middle-range, practice, and conceptual theories) is also considered a situational theory, as it can be applied to specific situations, such as chronic illness.
- Situational theories provide guidance for nursing practice in specific circumstances, such as chronic illness, and can be used to develop interventions and evaluate outcomes in these contexts.