1. There have been a number of different key models of health that have influenced health promotion. Describe the two (2) major health service models identified below (in 40-50 words each).
Social model of health:
Biomedical model of health:
2. The National Safety and Quality Health Service (NSQHS) Standards are being applied across a wide variety of health care services in all States/Territories in Australia. Describe the application of these standards (in 50-60 words).
3. Australia’s health-care system is a multi-faceted web of various providers, settings, participants and supporting mechanisms. Explain the overall structure of health care system in your State/Territory (in 80-90 words).
4. Nursing in Australia has evolved in training and regulation since the 19th century. Briefly describe how the nursing profession has evolved over time outlining major historical events (in 130-150 words).
The health system of Australia is one of the systems that is regarded as the best globally and provides safe and cheap health care to all its citizens. It is managed by all Australian government levels, and health services are provided in several ways including through diagnosis, education programs, preventive services and treatment in the community, care in hospitals, palliative care and rehabilitation in the hospitals as well as in the communities. The health system in Australia originated from the federal system that left the Australian states with the responsibility of delivering health services. In 1946, the constitutional changes enabled the government of Australia to involve itself in funding the public hospitals, and this led to operational as well as regulatory arrangements that are present today. The agreements between Australian governments have continuously helped in reshaping the health system in the country.
5. Nursing today is much different from nursing practices years ago. Describe the current perspectives of the nursing profession including the opportunities for career development in Australia (in 50-60 words).
Nursing in Australia has grown quickly over the last ten years, and this has been because of the initiatives taken by the government in strengthening primary care. There are several changes that are changing the nursing landscape, and they include funding models, nursing education and changes in the health policies. Nursing education providers in Australia are progressively looking for ways of preparing graduates or students to work in primary care facilities.
6. Explain the philosophical framework underpinning primary health care (in 50-60 words).
7. Models of care describe how best to provide care across the many healthcare areas. Briefly describe the following 2 (two) models of health (in 40-50 words each).
The holistic health model:
The health-illness continuum:
8. Briefly explain the role of the following nursing regulatory authorities, industrial and professional bodies (in 30-40 words each).
a) Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia
The NMBA is a board that performs functions that are outlined by the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law. It regulates the nursing and midwifery practice in Australia, and its main role is protecting the public.
b) Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation
The ANMF is a federation that works at improving the payment as well as the working conditions of all its members in health systems. It also provides information regarding payment rates and career development.
c) Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency
AHPRA is an agency that is responsible for registering and accrediting health professionals in Australia. It supports the National Boards in executing the National Registration and Accreditation scheme. It also investigates complains that concerns the conduct of registered practitioners.
d) Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council
The ANMAC is an authority that is in charge of accrediting the education providers and nursing and midwifery study programs. It helps in protecting the health as well as the safety of the citizens by developing high-quality nursing standards.
9. It is vital to understand the population health issues related to those from a culturally and linguistically diverse background. Describe 3 (three) possible health and illness issues faced by people migrated to Australia (in 40-50 words).
10. Health insurances are provided by public and private agencies and organisations in Australia. Describe the role of the following organisations in relation to health insurance and financial support (in 30-40 words each).
10.1 Private Healthcare Australia (PHA)
The PHA is an association that represents the private health insurance businesses that operates private pharmacies, hospitals and other medical services such as funding through private insurances; and this happens according to the frameworks outlined by the Australian government.
Centrelink is an Australian agency that delivers payments as well as services to parents, the unemployed, retirees, and people with disabilities. It also provides emotional and financial support to separated parents, which is essential for the wellbeing of the children.
11. Research and explain the following two (2) health issues prevailing among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia (in 30-40 words each). Hint: What is known about heart health in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population?
Cardiac health issues:
12. Provide 3 (three) examples of healthcare environments an enrolled nurse could practise in Australia.
13. The interdisciplinary health care team includes a diverse group of members (e.g., physicians, psychologists, social workers, and occupational and physical therapists), depending on the needs of the patient. Briefly outline the roles of the following personnel in the health service delivery for a client undergoing rehabilitation (in 30-40 words each).
14. Health is multi-factorial and is influenced by a number of things including our age, family history of illness, employment, education and living conditions. Briefly outline how the following themes impact the health and illness of people from Australia and other countries (in 30-40 words each).
15. Provide an example of a political impact on healthcare delivery which might result in a constraint on services.
The uneven allocation of resources by different levels of governments in Australia is an example of the political impact that could impede the delivery of healthcare services. Persistent concerns regarding safety and quality of health services are because of major challenges in the funding structures. The multifaceted structure of the health system is mirrored in the funding arrangements, and the health scheme is funded by all the government levels. Politicians in government levels play a big role in making policies that shape the health system.
16. A range of diseases and conditions contribute to the burden of illness and injury in the Australian community. Briefly outline the 9 (nine) current issues impacting on clinical practice and health policy development with reference to the National Health Priority Areas (NHPAs).
17. James is planning to go to South Africa for leisure. He is planning to visit smaller cities and he is an adventurous eater. Which agency could he approach to get a vaccination against Typhoid and perform a cardio vascular health check? Discuss how he could access the service?
18. A resident who is admitted in your aged care facility yesterday asked you whether he can take his herbal (Ayurvedic) medicine which he usually takes to overcome indigestion problems. The resident is prescribed with new medications as per his medication chart. What is the best response in this scenario?
A medication chart serves as a tool of communication between nurses, doctors, pharmacists and hospitals regarding the medicines of the aged residents and this helps in directing how as well as when the drugs are supposed to be administered. The aged care premises maintain an accurate as well as a consistent record of prescribed drugs. Therefore in this scenario, it would not be advisable to use the herbal medicines as this would lead to transcription errors.
19. Research and describe the effectiveness of the following community health promotional strategies.
National Bowel Cancer Screening Program:
20. Describe the key focus of Betty Neuman’s System model in relation to nursing care.
21. Your colleague appears unhappy and disturbed. When asked why, your colleague replies that she has received culturally inappropriate comments from her supervisor. How could you deal with this situation?
22. The Australian healthcare system had evolved over time to cater for the needs of its people. Briefly describe the development and historical context of the Australian health care system (in 130-150 words).
23. Briefly describe 2 (two) roles of the interdisciplinary health care team in health service delivery (in 30-40 words).
24. Describe 2 (two) strengths and 2 (two) weaknesses of the Australian health care system, making references to your local State/Territory (in 40-50 words each).
25. How do Enrolled Nurses work to uphold the following Principles of Primary Care and Wellness? (In 30-40 words)
Universal access to care and coverage on the basis of need (principle of primary healthcare):
Positivity is empowerment (principle of wellness):
26. It is important for you to understand the impact of various health and illness factors on people when delivering care services. Briefly describe the links between the following factors and a person’s health:
Higher income and social status:
Low education levels:
Greater social support networks:
27. Describe how the availability of healthcare funding and resource allocation impact the health care delivery in Australia? (In 50-80 words).
28. Explain the impacts for healthcare delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia (in 100-150 words).
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