Lesson Planning Styles and Taxonomies
a) The importance of learning styles and learning taxonomies in planning a lesson
The explanation of the importance of learning styles and learning taxonomies in planning a lesson is detailed and clear and supported with more than 4 ( 5 is enough) examples
b) The need to use action verbs in planning a lesson
The need to use action verbs in planning a lesson is clearly explained with several details and supported with more than 4 examples (5 is enough)
c) The importance of the reverse planning methods in meeting lesson objectives
The importance of the reverse planning method is clearly explained with several details and supported with more than 4 examples (5 is enough)
Lesson Planning Styles and Taxonomies Sample Paper
The importance of learning styles and learning taxonomies in planning a lesson
Lesson planning enables teachers to know the abilities, skills, and knowledge that students should have by the end of the learning process. It helps teachers to envision the learning that they want to see and analyze various learning experience that is important in ensuring effective learning. The use of the learning taxonomies and learning styles is important when creating a lesson plan that specifically focuses the learning to specific skills intended to be achieved by the students at the end of the lesson. Thinking frameworks such as Bloom’s Taxonomy are important in teaching and learning because they help teachers to analyze the thinking levels of the students (Mitchell, 2017). The introduction of critical thinking in classroom instruction allows students to experience various opportunities that essentially develop their capacity to process the information on higher thinking levels. Teachers or educators use the taxonomies to assess or evaluate their summative and formative assessments in the teaching process. For instance, they use the taxonomies to identify the level of thinking of every assessment item, and this helps them to know the number of higher-level thinking items assessed. Sometimes learners pass their assessments; however, upon thorough examination, all the items turn out to be remembering facts. Whereas remembering facts can improve critical thinking, examining only the low-level thinking skills always causes misalignment because of the higher levels of thinking skills demands in content standards. It is, therefore, important that classrooms encourage learners’ questions and inquiries.
Learners can transition from the lower learning level to higher levels through lectures, topics, course materials, classroom activities, and assignments that are structured to assist them in succeeding. The understanding of the different thinking levels can assist students in performing better in tests, examinations, or any other assignments. Educators apply the taxonomies by asking questions that directly relate to particular learning goals in every stage. For instance, using multiple-choice assignments can help in gauging the level of the student’s basic understanding of a matter. According to the taxonomies, it is important that in every learning environment, learning skills should begin from the bottom to the top of the pyramid (Nagro, Fraser & Hooks, 2019). The lower level skills need less cognitive processing, however, it offers a crucial base for learning, and the higher-level skills need deeper learning. Teachers create their lesson plans around problems, case studies, and questions that encourage critical thinking. Teachers also use the tools of the taxonomies to specifically focus the curriculum on specific skills intended to be achieved by the students at the end of the lesson. In this way, learners can have clear and measurable objectives to achieve. They complete class activities and answer questions basing on the objective that is the focus.
Whereas learning styles, on the other hand, refers to ways in which in students collect, interpret as well as store information. The learning environment contains students whose learning styles are unique as compared to others. The gap between teachers’ teaching styles and the learning styles of the students might sometimes hamper the learning process. And therefore, understanding student’s diversity is important for any teacher when planning for a lesson. To understand the complexity of the students’ learning behavior, teachers make objective observations on the students all the time. Learning styles consist of cognitive skills, effective, as well as psychomotor skills. There are various thinking skills that students can learn; however, they are not taught in the same manner (Nkhoma, Lam, Richardson, Kam, & Lau, 2016). Learning styles indicate how learners learn and prefer to learn most effectively. The understanding of the favorite learning styles of the students is an important tool for teachers when planning a lesson. Identifying common learning styles of the students helps teachers to enhance their instructional methods. It is hard for educators to accommodate different styles of learning. Therefore, it is upon the learners do develop or establish the ability to shift to learning styles depending on class activity. Understanding learning styles makes teachers have basic knowledge of the weaknesses and strengths of the average students in the classroom. And this information is important because it helps teachers to plan learning lessons that ensure learners’ development is maximized. It also provides a good foundation since it can be utilized in delivering suitable activities, evaluation, objectives, and questioning.
The need to use action verbs in planning a lesson
Action verbs are important words in lesson planning because they help teachers in describing and classifying observable skills, behaviors, abilities, attitudes, and knowledge of the students. The verbs employed in designing a learning lesson plan should match up to the thinking level of the learners. When determining the learning objectives, teachers use verbs from a suitable cognitive domain that fits the students’ thinking level (Latifa, 2016). All the action verbs used in lesson planning should be measurable and observable. For instance, there are various levels of learning, and each learning level is associated with its action verbs that are used in describing and classifying observable skills, behaviors, abilities, attitudes, and knowledge. The following shows examples of action verbs that can be used when planning a lesson.
|Name, list, identify
|Summarize, compare, describe
|Use, illustrate, classify
|Compare, distinguish, contrast
|Prove, debate, judge
|Design, devise, write
The importance of the reverse planning methods in meeting lesson objectives
Reverse planning is a type of planning that starts with the end goal, working backward to establish the plan of action. Teachers start by outlining the end goal, outlining clear steps, focusing on the process, and finally, visualizing a positive outcome. Reverse planning methods are important in meeting the learning objectives of the students, and this is because they help in ensuring that the content, assessment, and curriculum are aligned with the objectives that teachers seek to teach the students. In reverse planning, teachers focus on the end goal, and this allows them to use their imagination to think of the future events critically and this makes it easier to picture the steps they will need to use to achieve the goal.
Reverse planning methods are important because of several reasons, as shown by previous research, for instance: first, they help teachers to focus on the positive outcome hence it is easier to think about all the barriers that might prevent them from achieving their goal. Second, they allow teachers to be deliberate with their assessments and class activities. The idea of setting lesson objectives first in reverse planning permits teachers to keep their focus on learners learning rather than learners’ activities all through the planning process (Kim, & Pineau, 2016). Third, the materials, strategies, assessments, and assignments for a lesson are identified and are aligned with the objective of the lesson easily. And therefore, they play a crucial role in a student’s learning process, and this is because they state what students are expected to understand as well as what they are expected to do. Fourth, teachers use reverse planning methods to focus on particular parts that show proper cognitive skills in every examination allowing learners to have clear and measurable objectives (Cooper, Soneral & Brownell, 2017). And this helps teachers to plan learning lessons that ensure learners’ development is maximized. Fifth, they ensure that teachers develop a purpose for learning before adopting it into the lesson plan. Having a clear purpose helps them to focus their lesson planning on the expected student outcomes. Every activity is undertaken by the students in the class always have a reason tied to it.
Cooper, K. M., Soneral, P. A., & Brownell, S. E. (2017). Define your goals before you design a CURE: a call to use backward design in planning course-based undergraduate research experiences, Journal of microbiology & biology education, 18(2). https://doi.org/10.1128/jmbe.v18i2.1287
Kim, B., & Pineau, J. (2016). Socially adaptive path planning in human environments using inverse reinforcement learning. International Journal of Social Robotics, 8(1), 51-66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12369-015-0310-2
Latifa, I. S. (2016, November). The Analysis of Teachers’ Lesson Plan Through Behavioural Objectives Theory. In Ninth International Conference on Applied Linguistics (CONAPLIN 9). Atlantis Press.
Mitchell, D. (2017). ‘Curriculum making,’ teacher and learner identities in changing times. Geography, 102, 99-103.
Nagro, S. A., Fraser, D. W., & Hooks, S. D. (2019). Lesson planning with engagement in mind: Proactive classroom management strategies for curriculum instruction. Intervention in School and Clinic, 54(3), 131-140.
Nkhoma, M., Lam, T., Richardson, J., Kam, K., & Lau, K. H. (2016, May). Developing case based learning activities based on the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy. Informing Science & IT Education Conference (In SITE) (pp. 85-93).