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Jessica’s Participation in Local Politics

Jessica’s Participation in Local Politics

Question 1: <21{1[1(01)01]}> Since Jessica’s participation in local politics increased significantly after she joined her school’s political science club, it is clear that her involvement in that club led her to take an interest in politics.
The argument above is flawed because:

  • It doesn’t say which political issues Jessica is interested in.
  • It states that the only purpose of the political science club is to spark an interest in politics.
  • It misuses the word “significantly.”
  • Correct!: it’s possible that an interest in politics caused Jessica to join the political science club.

Question 2: <11{1[3(02)02]}> Catherine goes to her local movie theater only to see romantic comedies. Since Catherine did not go to the movies yesterday, there is not a romantic comedy playing at her local theater.
The reasoning above is flawed because the evidence:

  • Correct!: Does not suggest that Catherine goes to see every romantic comedy that plays at her local movie theater.
  • Implies that Catherine is uninterested in most types of movies.
  • Does not indicate whether Catherine watches only romantic comedies at home.
  • Suggests that Catherine’s local movie theater hardly ever shows romantic comedies.

Question 3: <11{1[4(23)23]}> People have claimed that Jamie’s paintings have given them the blues. Clearly this cannot be entirely correct, since many of Jamie’s paintings contain no blue at all.
The argument above is flawed because the author:

  • Is not a noted painting expert.
  • Relies on contradictory facts.
  • Correct!: Misinterprets a key term.
  • Provides no evidence.

Question 4: <11{1[2(06)06]}> Reporter: A new campaign finance reform bill being considered by Congress would limit the amount of campaign contributions that political candidates can receive. However, a survey of candidates running for mayor, governor, and senate seats shows that not one of them favors the bill. Clearly, there is no desire among politicians to limit campaign contributions.
Which one of the following points out the flaw in the reporter’s argument above?

  • Correct Answer: The views of candidates currently running for office do not necessarily represent the views of all politicians.
  • The reporter wrongly assumes that no politician has ever supported a bill intended to limit campaign contributions.
  • The evidence provided by the reporter suggests that most politicians are in favor of the new bill.
  • The reporter doesn’t indicate the amount that the new bill would limit campaign contributions.

Question 5 <11{1[4(17)17]}> Mrs. Orlof teaches two history classes, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Yesterday she gave the same test to both classes. Anyone who failed the test must take a retest. Since a greater percentage of students who took the morning test failed the test than students who took the afternoon test, more of Orlof’s morning history students than afternoon history students will have to take the retest.
The conclusion above is not necessarily valid because:

  • Correct Answer: More students may have taken the test in the afternoon than in the morning.
  • Some of the students who passed the afternoon test may have received information about the test from morning students.
  • Some students may have been absent from both classes.
  • More students in the morning class may have passed the test than failed the test.

OR

Question 6: <21{1[1(13)13]}> A recent study of 100 employees from six departments of a major corporation found 65% to be sleep deprived. The researchers concluded that the majority of corporate employees are sleep deprived.
The researcher’s conclusion is suspect because it:

  • Relies on a sample that is too small to represent the entire corporate workforce.
  • Fails to describe the effects the sleep deprivation has.
  • Is based on evidence that is statistically impossible.
  • Assumes that corporate employees are more sleep deprived than other people.

Question 7: <21{2[2(12)36]}> Career counselor: It is best for artists to build a practical and safe career that will guarantee them a secure income, and then pursue their art in their spare time. That way, they will be motivated to work hard at their day jobs to support their art making, and both their career and their art will thrive.
Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument?

  • Splitting time between two pursuits in life often causes both to suffer.
  • Having the time and money to make art doesn’t guarantee an artist commercial success.
  • Many people who aren’t artists prefer to pursue practical and safe careers.
  • Some forms of art making are expensive and require a good deal of money to pursue.

Question 8: <11{2[3(11)35]}> Some politicians claim to support the environment in speeches they make around the country. However, to get to those speeches they ride in gas guzzling, pollution creating private planes. They therefore clearly don’t believe a word of what they say and are actually making the environmental problem worse.
Which one of the following, if true, would best weaken the argument above?

  • Improvements to the environment brought about through the politicians’ public support of environmental regulations more than offset the damage done to the environment by the politicians’ private planes.
  • A majority of voters surveyed agree that politicians sometimes make society’s problems worse.
  • Most people who hear the politicians’ speeches on the environment are unconvinced by their arguments.
  • Some of the politicians try to hide the fact that they travel by private plane to their speeches around the country.

Question 9: <21{2[1(01)25]}> The untimely death of Professor Hathaway halted his groundbreaking research into the uses of solar power. It therefore appears that Hathaway’s research will not result in practical applications.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

  • Researchers at other universities are conducting research into the potential applications of solar power.
  • Officials at Professor Hathaway’s university have refused requests to make Professor Hathaway’s research public.
  • Not all professors at Professor Hathaway’s university knew that he was conducting research into the uses of solar power.
  • Professor Hathaway’s research can be used by other scientists to create useful applications.

Question 10: <11{3[1(07)43]}> As part of its reorganization, company X created five new positions within the company. However, after the reorganization was complete, company X had fewer employees than before the reorganization.
Which one of the following, if true, would best explain the result described above?

  • Some employees were laid off as a number of old positions were eliminated in the reorganization.
  • The new positions were created to respond to a greater demand for company X’s products.
  • Some employees who quit over dissatisfaction with the reorganization were immediately replaced by new hires.
  • Some employees of the company were switched into new departments to fill the new positions.

Question 11: <11{3[1(03)39]}> Last season at City Opera House, far more people attended opera X than opera Y. However, opera Y generated far greater net profits for City Opera House than did opera X.
Each of the following could directly explain the result indicated above EXCEPT:
Question 12: <21{4[1(10)54]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
heavy : weight
Question 13: <11{4[2(12)56]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
building : blueprint
Question 14: <21{4[3(02)46]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
conductor : orchestra
Question 15: <11{5[1(01)57]}> Arthur: The solutions to most mystery novels I read are not believable. However, my enjoyment of a mystery novel depends only on its suspenseful mood and colorful characters.
Norton: Roughly 80% of the mystery novels I read have believable solutions, which is good since I do not enjoy mystery novels that don’t have believable solutions.
The speakers above:
Question 16: <21{5[1(03)59]}> Barney: Last winter, I slipped on the outside stairs of PineTree Café and broke my leg. My fall was caused by ice on the stairs that the restaurant failed to remove. Since the restaurant clearly did not provide a safe atmosphere for its customers, I am justified in taking it to court.
Lydia: Unwarranted lawsuits are sweeping the country—lawsuits that have no legal merit and are brought simply to make lawyers and their clients rich. If this trend continues, soon our legal system will be swamped to the point where it won’t be able to administer justice to people who truly deserve it. You therefore should drop your case against PineTree Café.
The speakers above appear to disagree on which one of the following points?
Question 17: <7{6[3(02)66]}> In a survey of 10 film historians, half voted for Nosferatu as the greatest vampire film ever made, and the other half voted for Dracula. However, when asked which lead vampire character they considered more charismatic, all of the film critics chose Dracula over Nosferatu.
Based on the information above, it must be true that for some film critics, their feelings about the charisma of the lead character:
Question 18: <11{6[1(07)71]}> The higher the price of an antique, the greater people’s expectation that the object is rare. That, in turn, makes the antique appear more valuable.
If the statements above are correct, then offering an antique for sale at a bargain price:
Question 19: <11{6[2(03)67]}> Only circus animals with a clean bill of health will perform in today’s exhibition. A monkey, a poodle, and a horse will perform in today’s exhibition. No circus animals with a clean bill of health were prescribed medications this week.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them?
Question 20: <21{7[1(04)80]}> A company can either invest in employee training seminars or update its computer network. Since updating the computer network would result in more measurable benefits, the company would be best off updating its computer network.
The argument above assumes that:
Question 21: <11{7[1(01)77]}> Detective: The robbery at the mall was carried out by a mall employee acting alone roughly one hour after the mall closed last Saturday night. The only employees present at the mall at the time of the robbery were security guards Evans and Clark. Since the mall’s surveillance system was disabled by the thief just before the robbery, the thief must be Evans.
The argument above would be valid if:
Question 22: <11{7[2(03)79]}> Looking to increase the profits of his lemonade stand, Johann doubled the price of a cup of lemonade from 25 cents to 50 cents. This clearly shows Johann’s lack of business sense, for now he’ll almost certainly sell fewer cups at the new price and therefore make less money than before.
The argument above assumes that:
Question 23: <11{8[1(04)92]}> The very large increase in allergies over the last thirty years is due to the great success of immunizations administered over this time period. Since immunizations have nearly eliminated life-threatening diseases such as polio, the human immune system increasingly targets other environmental substances in order to keep working properly. Allergy symptoms such as runny nose and itchy eyes result when the immune system attacks pollen that is breathed in from the air.
Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage above?
Question 24: <11{8[3(02)90]}> Whereas many industries suffer during economic recessions, the art industry does well. Some think the reason is that artists feed off the anxiety and uncertainty during recessions to produce inspired works. Others think that recessions, while harmful to most people, produce a handful of very rich people willing to pay very high prices for artworks, driving up the value of the art market as a whole.
The author of the passage above is primarily interested in:
Question 25: <21{8[1(07)95]}> Political science professor: Many people insist that the Internet is revolutionizing the political process. They argue that Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information. And they’re right that online political chatter increases daily. But offering or reading anonymous online opinions does not by itself make for active political participation. In the past one would attend a rally, protest, or town meeting to engage in real politics. Today, people sit passively in front of computer screens under the illusion that they are connecting with their fellow citizens.
Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the professor’s argument?

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