Court Based Answered Essays

1. Describe the composition of the courtroom work group. Explain how it controls the processing of criminal cases in most jurisdictions.Description. The courtroom workgroup comprises individuals, as well as teams, who remain tasked with the responsibility of working together with the sole purpose of ensuring successful prosecution of criminal court cases. The individuals in question include the judge, defendants, jurors, claimants, prosecutors, as well as defense attorneys. According to Spohn, Hemmens, and McCann (2018), other workgroup players or actors consists of the law clerks, the news media, court clerks, police officers, court administrators, and witnesses. The identified parties play a variety of roles, with the judge issuing warrants, presiding over hearings, presiding over trials, making or issuing different forms of probable cause determinations, ruling on motions, and denying and granting bails. On the same note, prosecuting lawyers play a leading role in representing the state when it comes to criminal cases, while their defense counterparts working as private appointees in ensuing the defendants’ civil rights are not only protected but also defended throughout the case proceedings. Additionally, the jurors help with determining whether the defendant is guilty of the criminal offense he or she has so far been charged within the court of law (Suzanne & Elizabeth, 2016). Concisely, the roles played by members of the courtroom workgroup are interdependent and complementary.

Case processing. Given its role of ensuring successful prosecution of a case, the courtroom workgroup influences the processing of criminal cases from their inception to their completion, commonly known as logical conclusion. To achieve this, the workgroup in question works together by creating an environment characterized by justice. In this respect, justice refers to the court atmosphere characterized by a great deal of fairness, which revolves around offering equal opportunity to defendants and prosecutors, regardless of their religious affiliation, gender, national origin, race, age, as well as age (Spohn, Hemmens, & McCann, 2018). In addition, the courtroom workgroup is structured in a way that it boasts different authority or power relationships. For instance, the judge serves as the supreme leader or ruler of the court, which remains reflected in his or her dress, how other individuals address them, and the design of the courtroom. Despite the leadership role of judges, their authority is limited, especially by appeals, prosecutor’s discretion, sentencing guidelines, budgetary control, as well as jurisdiction (American Bar Association, 2019). In this way, the presiding judge must rely on the laid-down court procedures, including relying on prosecutors and defense attorneys to present evidence or witnesses.

Prosecutors, the key members of the courtroom workgroup, have superior knowledge about a given criminal case, meaning they enjoy a great deal of discretion over what cases will go to the trial stage. On the same note, defense attorneys play a central role in interviewing witnesses as a way of obtaining evidence through file pretrial motions, as well as discovery (Spohn, Hemmens, & McCann, 2018). In this way, the courtroom workgroup members control the processing of criminal cases by sharing common goals of doing justice, reducing uncertainty, maintaining high-level group cohesion, and reducing the caseload. The different bases of their knowledge revolve around the fact that they utilize three main techniques in determining whether a given case would end in a plea agreement or trial: negotiations, unilateral decisions, as well as adversarial proceedings. Ultimately, the courtroom’s workgroup influences case processing through informal arrangements, better negotiations, establishment of cooperative relationships, and less reliance on legal formalities.

2. How do judges decide? Discuss the factors judges legitimately consider when imposing sentences, and what scholarly studies indicate may also be influencing judges’ sentencing decisions.

3. Explain why the threat of a potential “trial penalty” is essential to maintain a criminal court system reliant upon plea agreements. Is a system that induces the vast majority of defendants to give up their constitutional rights legitimate?

4. Discuss the appellate process from trial to the U.S. Supreme Court. Distinguish between direct appeals and habeas corpus proceedings or interlocutory appeals.

5. Do you believe in problem solving courts? Which do you believe are most likely to prove effective today and in the future?  Are there any other specialized courts you would propose?  Why?

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American Legal System Answers

1. What are the origins of the American legal system? Please make sure your answer includes the following matters: the common law, precedent, stare decisis, and judicial review. You may also talk about other origins that you believe to be important.Laws refer to critical rules enforced upon individual members of a given group with the sole purpose of creating and maintaining a functioning society. In this respect, countries from across the globe have not only their own laws but also law systems. The United States of America (U.S.) is no exception when it comes to this because it has one of the well-developed legal systems in the world. The current U.S. law system can be traced back to Great Britain. Having colonized the U.S., the first British settlers created 13 colonies, which they governed and ruled through a set of principles, as well as rules (Spohn, Hemmens, & McCann, 2018). After America’s independence, English laws formed the basis of new rules and regulations in the country. The origins of the U.S. legal system tends to be inextricably linked to that of England. In particular, the fundamental principles, which comprise the present-day American law system include; common law, judicial review, precedent, and stare decisis.

Common law and precedent. According to Brouwer (2018), the American legal system revolves around common law, meaning it relies a great deal on court precedents when it comes to formal adjudications. Even when a given statute is facing an issue, the common law system provides that previous judicial determinations remain critical to how the court resolves the matter or lawsuit before it. In essence, the creation of common law occurs when a court makes its decision on a given case, in addition to setting precedent. By definition, the principle of precedent refers the practice or whole process of referring to and using previous court rulings to inform judgments in a current case. Concisely, in the U.S. legal system, judges often cite or use a decided case as an example when justifying his or her judgment in subsequent cases.

Judicial review. The U.S. legal system also originates from judicial review, which refers to the power given to the country’s Supreme Court to play a central role in reviewing laws, as well as actions from both the executive and legislative branches of government with the sole purpose of determining their constitutionality (Lustig & Weiler, 2018). Accordingly, judicial review creates the various checks and balances necessary for limiting misuse of power by of the three federal government branches. In this sense, the judicial review remains of one of the fundamental principles of the U.S law system as it goes a long way in ensuring the President and Congress remain subject to review, as well as possible invalidation when they breach the Constitution.

The establishment of judicial review followed the landmark ruling made by the Supreme Court in 1803 in a case involving Marbury versus Madison. The court through Chief Justice John Marshall included one of the defining passages, arguing that the U.S. Judicial Department (JD) has the duty of saying what constitutes the country’s law (Spohn, Hemmens, & McCann, 2018). In other words, the passage requires anyone who applies the rule to a given case to place much emphasis on expounding and interpreting the rule as a way of avoiding the conflict between two or more laws. In this respect, judicial review creates and maintains the much-needed power balance in the U.S. society.

Stare decisis. Besides common law, judicial review, and precedent, stare decisis, which has so far been attributed to Justice Brandeis, is another of the critical origins of the U.S. legal system. The principle in question serves as a unique but widely adopted method tasked with the responsibility of making case laws in good laws. In this respect, stare decisis involves the practice of allowing or letting past or previous court decisions stand, meaning the principle expect judges to abide by those rulings in their current matters, cases. In his recent study, Kozel (2010) corroborate that stare decisis has a broad range of names and descriptions because it refers to one of the policy principles, a series of pragmatic considerations, as well as the preferred course. Moreover, stare decisis serves as an extremely critical judicial doctrine, which plays a leading role in guiding the various decision rules used by judges in resolving disputes before the courts. Concisely, the U.S. legal system is founded on the principle of stare decisis, which requires individual judges to prioritize respecting the already established precedent; a judge must not disturb any of the settled matters.

2. Describe the role of the judge, the grand jury, and the trial jury in criminal trials. Please explain why the trial jury is both substantively and symbolically important.

3. Discuss the factors that significantly curtail the discretion of judges in the American criminal justice system. 

4. Take a position on whether plea agreements are generally good or bad, and why it would be difficult to ban or severely restrict plea agreements.

5. Is it really realistic today to believe that jurors can be insulated from pretrial and trial publicity?

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Chapter 7: Measuring and Monitoring Program Outcomes

Assignment Instructions

Complete a short essay 700-1000 words of the key points to chapter 7 in the textbook, and some application of the week’s material. This should allow you to demonstrate your understanding of the material. DO NOT use the summary points at the end of the chapter, instead focus on applying your knowledge. The summary points may guide you in figuring out what is important but, maybe something else caught your attention that you would like to talk about instead. Remember to use APA format.

You can:

  • find a policy and apply key concepts
  • apply your knowledge of the materials in other ways.

NOTE: Some of the information (i.e., key concepts) is necessary to define to demonstrate your understanding of the module material.

Rossi, P. H., Lipsey, M. W., & Freeman, H. E. (2014). Evaluation: A systematic approach. 7th edition. Sage publications.

Chapter 7:Measuring and Monitoring Program OutcomesMeasuring and Monitoring Program Outcomes

Regardless of a project’s excellent performance in addressing the targeted needs, and reaching its intended population, it cannot be held as successful until it brings some positive change in its social arena. Program evaluation, therefore, is a fundamental management function that must be tackled with great care to ensure the results are valid and interpreted correctly (Rossi, Lipsey & Freeman, 2014). The present assignment will discuss the concepts in Chapter Seven of the course book: Measuring and Monitoring Program Outcomes. Specifically, I will use the Arizona Cash Assistance Program as an example to evaluate the application of the concepts.

A program can only be viable if it attains positive outcomes. Ideally, an outcome is the condition of the specific group a program targets (Rossi, Lipsey & Freeman, 2014). For instance, the Arizona Cash Assistance Program aims to attain four outcomes. First, to assist low-income families in taking care of their children. Second, to reduce the dependency of needy families by promoting job preparation, employment, and marriage. Additionally, to reduce and prevent the cases of out-of-wedlock pregnancies. Finally, to encourage the establishment and maintenance of families with two parents. Outcomes are usually measured in terms of the characteristics and social condition of the target population and not of the project. Because the project targets low-income families, its outcomes can only be measured based on its ability to improve the lives of people from low-income families.

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Expressing and Assessing Program Theory

INSTRUCTIONS: READ Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability (2004). “Project HOPE Helped Break the Cycle of Prostitution and Solicitation, But Had Implementation Problems”. Report No. 04-50: Office of the Florida Legislature

Respond to each of the following questions after reading the Project Hope article above.

  • What is Project HOPE and what are the goals of the program?
  • Who are the target recipients of the program and are there any unintended benefits?
  • How was the program supposed to help Johns?  Was it successful at each site?
  • How was the program supposed to help Prostitutes?
  • What recommendations were made should the program be resumed?

Note. Excerpts from the article may be used to support each answer. Please type out each question and provide your answer beneath the question.  Answers should be comprehensive and thoroughly cover the questions. Answers should be comprehensive and thoroughly cover the questions.  The total page count for this is 4-5 pages. Please use APA format. What is Project HOPE, and What are the Goals of the Program?

The Healthy Options Promoting Esteem Project (Project Hope) was a community-based initiative developed to curb prostitution and solicitation. According to Rossi, Lipsey, and Freeman (2014), a program should be based on critical expectations and assumptions about how it would improve the social conditions of a particular group. Project HOPE had two basic components: it focused on serving prostitutes and people who were involved in soliciting prostitution known as “Johns.” The program’s participants were referred by jail staff, probation officers, public defenders, attorneys, and judges (Oppaga, 2004). The program was created by Chapter 2002-297 of the Florida State Laws as a pilot project to break the cycle of solicitation and prostitution in Pinellas and Hillsborough counties.  Therefore, the projects primary goal was to control prostitution. The law also directed the Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability (OPPAGA) to monitor and evaluate the program. According to the law, any individual declared guilty of prostitution is entitled to be involved in the project.

Who are the Target Recipients of the Program, and are there any Unintended Benefits?

The project targets two primary recipients: prostitutes and solicitors of prostitution.

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Chapter Four: Qualitative Methods
Use the textbook below as a reference to help.
Rossi, P. H., Lipsey, M. W., & Freeman, H. E. (2014). Evaluation: A systematic approach. 7th edition. Sage publications.

Chapter 4: Assessing the Need For A Program

Assignment instructions: 1 page (250 words)

Chapter 4 discusses how qualitative methods can be used for describing needs.

1. Discuss the advantages of using qualitative methods for describing needs instead of using quantitative methods

Quantitative methods are effective in presenting the numerical aspects of the need assessment, but not the qualitative side of the program’s needs. As such, in describing certain needs, the qualitative approach might be more advantageous than quantitative methods.  When used to describe needs, qualitative methods are useful in presenting textured knowledge and detailed information, unlike quantitative techniques (p. 127). Using qualitative means increases the probability of obtaining in-depth information since the respondents reveal their attitude, behavior, and feelings that cannot be reflected in the quantitative approach.

2. Is it important to use them in combination when conducting needs assessments? Why or why not?

Both qualitative and quantitative techniques provide different types of information and details. Therefore, using the two procedures together widens the scope of data and information available for the need assessment. The combination of the two methods provides the researcher with both numerical and non-numerical traits of the need. According to  Rossi, Lipsey & Freeman (2014, p. 130), the combination of both qualitative and quantitative approaches is useful when used for need assessment because when used together they provide rich information and reliable estimates.

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3. Find a current program that you think needs an assessment. Describe the program, what type of methods you would use to determine the need for that assessment, Would you use qualitative, quantitative, or both? Describe the target population to the best of your abilities. (i.e. what is the population at risk?, what is the population in need?, and describe the nature of service needs (read about this on page 124 of your text)

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Chapter 3 Identifying Issues and Formulating Questions

Use this reference for this assignment

Rossi, P. H., Lipsey, M. W., & Freeman, H. E. (2014). Evaluation: A systematic approach. 7th edition. Sage publications.

  • Chapter 3:Identifying Issues and Formulating Questions

INSTRUCTIONS:

You will complete a short essay 700-1000 words of the key points of the chapter, or some 4 application of the topics covered during the week. DO NOT use the summary points at the end of the chapter, and instead focus on applying your knowledge. Be sure to cite within-text to support your responses. The summary points may guide you in figuring out what is important but, maybe something else caught your attention that you would like to talk about instead.

You can:

  • find a policy and apply key concepts
  • apply your knowledge of the materials in other ways.

NOTE: Some of the information (i.e., key concepts) is necessary to define to demonstrate your understanding of the module material

IN THIS ESSAY PROVIDE key points to the chapter or chapters covered during the week in order to demonstrate your understanding of the materials. Key Point of Chapter Three

Chapter three discusses three main areas of program evaluation: understanding a good evaluation question, linking questions with the right evaluation answer, and arranging and prioritizing evaluation questions. The overall analysis of the chapter involves assessing how evaluators can formulate appropriate evaluation questions. The chapter also discusses the decision-making process, including the required information while evaluating the questions.

Understanding a Good Evaluation Question

A good evaluation question will be deemed effective if it has been designed in line with the functions it is intended to execute as well as the performance of the program. The major goal of the evaluation question is to meet the requirements of the target program and satisfy the interests of the stakeholders and decision makers.  The evaluation expert should get on board all the key stakeholders, including the program sponsors, to make sure their essential inputs are addressed. The success of the program lies mainly on the evaluator since he is an expert, and as such, he must identify issues that are essential for the program that might be overlooked. This means the evaluator should evaluate a question in a manner in which quality performance can be determined. As presented by Rossi Lipsey & Freeman (2014), a good evaluation should be based on “established criteria of merit, constructed standards, a measurable performance that can be compared with standards and synthesized and integrated data within the judgment of merit” (p. 70). These are the elements which the evaluator should ensure are present during the evaluation process.

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Operation Ceasefire in Boston

Find an article that discusses Operation Ceasefire in Boston. Identify appropriate evaluation questions and state at least 3 of them. Based on what you have learned so far in this class, can you determine if this is a good program? Why or why not? If so, evaluate the program based only on what we have covered so far.Boston experienced an increase in cases of gun-related violence and youth homicides in the late 1980s and early 1990s.  The homicides stemmed largely from increased use of crack cocaine among the youth and a rise in violent gang activities (The Bridgespan Group, 2019). In 1990, Juvenile handgun homicides increased to 73 victims from 22 victims in 1987. Consequently, Operation Ceasefire was established in 1995 to handle this issue.  The effort was led by a group of community participants, including educators, the police force, and frontline practitioners and financed by the National Institute of Justice. As a social program, Operation Ceasefire can be evaluated using some questions outlined by Rossi, Lipsey, and Freeman (2003) which include: “is the intervention reaching its target population? Is the intervention being implemented well? Are the intended services being provided? Is the intervention effective in attaining the desired goals or benefits?”

The operation ceasefire was a good program for three reasons. First, the program reached its target population. Ideally, the program targeted violent criminal groups with the highest risk of involving in gun-related violence. The working group started by identifying different gang members and contacting them directly (The Bridgespan Group, 2019). The program adopted an accountability model, whereby, its members paid attention to everyone involved in criminal activities and not just the killers, which acted as a powerful deterrent. In addition, the program was implemented well. The approach made strategic use of different authorities like parole officers and the police to prosecute violent actions and establish a strong deterrent aggressively. Community leaders, service providers, and family members also involved directly with gang members to communicate moral messages against crime and provide assistance to those willing to abandon crime.

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Criminological Theory Based Questions

Answer 4 of the following questions (if you answer more than four, only your first four responses will be graded

1.Describe the major criticisms of Sutherland’s differential association theory and assess the extent to which Akers’ social learning theory overcame these criticismsThe Sutherland differential association theory is one of the theories associated with criminology and the actions of the criminal. This theory believes that the effects of a criminal should not be considered and taken as simple. The criminal’s behaviors are mostly influenced by the people that they most associate with (Cullen, Agnew & Wilcox, 2018). The most common reference group is the family, especially the nuclear family, since the individual grows up and lives with people from this group. The association that a proper form with this group makes them learn or not learn what is considered acceptable or not by society.

Differential theory major criticism is that there is no way to test it empirically. Sutherland did not provide any form of testing this theory, and this made it difficult for a person’s prior criminal attitudes to be determined or previous social positions, and this automatically made no effort in determining the tipping point. It automatically remained unclear what favorable or unfavorable influences could make one become a criminal. Another weakness is the inability to distinguish learned or inherited causes of crime. This rendered it invalid to explaining reasons for offending. Psychologically, it could not be credibly counted on.

The standard approach which ignores biological or inherited reasons is another weakness of this theory. It does not consider that natural causes of crime might be because of stressors like maltreatment. It also does not account for an individual’s difference when pre-disposed to crime. This theory also ignores offense, which might be caused by an individual’s free will. Social learning theory, as advanced by Akers, seeks to extent Sutherland’s differential association theory to mend the loopholes being pointed by the critics. For example, Sutherland argues that criminal behavior is learned through interaction with others but fails to provide how such behavior is learned. Akers makes differential association theory more reliable by employing theories of learning, including social learning theory and behavioral theory to show how criminal behavior is learned (Cullen, Agnew & Wilcox, 2018). With social learning theory, Akers aims at identifying the cause and treatment for a specific type of behavior. The theory provides solutions to different causes of crime. This theory tends to concentrate on an individual and does not tag along with other factors concerned with an individual. It aims at learning carefully and providing solutions.

2. Criminology textbooks tend to get thicker and heavier with each subsequent edition. New theories are added, but none are removed. Can this situation be rectified with theoretical integration?

3. The U.S. criminal justice system has a wide reach, and its impact is not felt equally by race or class. 1 in 33 adults are under some form of criminal justice supervision. 1 in 10 black males age 30 to 34 are in prison or jail compared to 1 in 61 white males age 30 to 34 (Source: BJS report “Correctional Population in the United States, 2010.” NCJ-236319). 1 in 12 blacks will not be allowed to vote in the upcoming presidential election and in some states more than 20% of the black population is barred from voting due to felony disenfranchisement (Source: Jeff Manza and Christopher Uggen’s Locked Out). 

Interpret these facts from the perspective of one or more critical criminology or race theories (theories from Part VII or Part XV of the textbook).

4. How does life-course theory help us understand the fact that nearly all serious adult offenders were serious juvenile offenders yet most serious juvenile offenders do not become serious adult offenders? (Answered)

5. Is Hirschi’s (1969) social bonds theory compatible with Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (1990) general theory of crime? Why or why not? (Answered)

6. How might criminal justice sanctions such as arrest and imprisonment increase individual criminal involvement? Identify at least two theories that would suggest this and assess their adequacy. (Answered)

7. Several criminological theories attempt to explain variation in crime at the neighborhood level. Pick one such theory and explain the differences between structural and cultural factors in the explanation of crime at the neighborhood level using this theory. 

8. Criminological theories have public policy implications. Contrast two theories: one which has unworkable or unrealistic policy implications and one which has reasonable policy implications.

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Formal Observation Cycle Sample

For this final assignment, you will complete a formal observation cycle. This will include conducting  a mock pre-conference and post-conference and completing an observation form while watching 1 of the 3 teacher-observation videos on youtube

https://youtu.be/HXWIQSUtS6E     (Adam Maitland’s Classroom Observation)

https://youtu.be/JkA0Xb3_nyE     (  Science Lesson Study: Investigation-Colloquium Method  )

https://youtu.be/D2vqJGcU-so       John Huber- Classroom Observation

(“Adam Maitland’s Classroom Observation – Elementary,” “Science Lesson Study – Investigation-Colloquium Method – Middle School,” and “John Huber – Classroom Observation – High School”).

Pre-Observation Conference

During this conference you will establish the focus of the observation. You will write about how you would conduct this conference, including the questions you would ask and what information you would expect to learn from the teacher to prepare you for the observation. You will also want to know that the teacher is prepared for the observation by making sure they know what to expect.

Observation

During the observation, you will watch one of the videos provided and will mark your observation form to collect the data needed to evaluate the instruction provided. This completed form must be submitted as a part of your assignment.

Post-Observation Conference

You will include, prior to beginning the conference, an analysis and an interpretation of the data you collected during the observation. You will then discuss your observation and your analysis of the data with the teacher and write a script of the conversation you will have with the teacher. This will include the questions you will ask, what their responses might be, and then your recommendations.

You will need to discuss the implications of the data by recommending any needed professional development and provide a prescription for instructional improvement. Based on this information, you will establish the focus for the next observation.

This assignment must be written in current APA format. Use a fictitious name for the teacher for privacy purposes.

PREVIEW

Introduction

            The clinical supervision method is a widely accepted method of observing teacher instruction in the classroom.  As mentioned by Glickman, Gordon, and Ross-Gordon (2018), the structure of clinical supervision generally follows the five steps of: preconference, observation, observation analysis, post-conference, and review.  These steps will all be utilized to observe a science lesson on the investigation-colloquium method by a teacher given the pseudonym Kyle Shannon.  The University of Virginia’s guide on How to select the right classroom observation tool stresses the benefit of using already established research-based observations tailored to specific subjects in order to obtain an objective observation with the right area of focus.  The science classroom observation protocol developed by RMC (research making change) Research Corporation in collaboration with LASER (leadership and assistance for science education reform) will be used to observe Kyle Shannon’s lesson on the investigation-colloquium method (Washington, 2010).  This protocol contains a science classroom observation rubric that is used for teacher observations and is added as attachment (1).

Pre-Observation Conference

The main objective of the pre-observation conference is for the administrator to describe the purpose and expectations of the observation.  The two main purposes of the observation are to first and foremost ensure that the students have an effective educational experience and to also help teachers receive objective feedback that can directly improve their instructional practices to enhance their professional development.  The pre-conference is also used to familiarize the teachers with the observation process, the specific traits he or she will be evaluated on, and the observation rubric.  As stated by Glickman, Gordon, and Ross-Gordon (2018, p. 269), “these determinations are made before the actual observation, so that both supervisor and teacher are clear about what will transpire;” stated another way, this conference helps the teacher and administrative evaluator be on the same page before the observation occurs.  These two main objectives, along with the teacher’s familiarity with this specific observational protocol and questions he or she may have, drive the pre-observation conversation.  The following is a likely conversation that would transpire:

END  OF  PREVIEW  

Week One Quiz All Answers Correct

Question 1

The World Bank reports that roughly ________ percent of the world’s population is poor.

A. 90

B. Correct Answer: 80

C. 75

D. 50

Question 2

U.S. companies monopolize much of the international entertainment media, which largely portrays U.S. products and lifestyles as glamorous and appealing. This situation would most likely be used as an example of ________.

Correct! cultural imperialism

cultures becoming more fragmented

the spread of high-context cultures

the stronger work ethic typical of developed countries

Question 3

Which of the following best defines international business?

It includes all business transactions in countries other than your home country.

Correct! It includes all business transactions involving two or more countries, whether the transactions are conducted by private or governmental organizations.

It includes all private economic flows between two or more countries.

It includes all public economic flows between two or more countries.

Question 4

According to the Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI), ________.

MNEs cannot be part of the process of setting ethical employment practices since they are the problem in the first place

Correct! no harsh or inhumane treatment of workers should be allowed

employment need not be freely chosen in order to be acceptable

child labor cannot be used unless there are no suitable alternatives

Question 5

Which of the following has caused consumers to demand access to foreign-made products?

Expectations of rising prices of foreign products have caused consumers to seek foreign products before their prices become prohibitive.

Fearing that their governments will enact restrictive policies on imports, consumers are stocking up on foreign products before restrictions are put in place.

Correct! Consumers have become more efficient in using media and technologies to compare prices worldwide.

Declining global affluence has caused consumers to seek out lower-priced products from abroad.