Formal Observation Cycle Sample

For this final assignment, you will complete a formal observation cycle. This will include conducting  a mock pre-conference and post-conference and completing an observation form while watching 1 of the 3 teacher-observation videos on youtube     (Adam Maitland’s Classroom Observation)     (  Science Lesson Study: Investigation-Colloquium Method  )       John Huber- Classroom Observation

(“Adam Maitland’s Classroom Observation – Elementary,” “Science Lesson Study – Investigation-Colloquium Method – Middle School,” and “John Huber – Classroom Observation – High School”).

Pre-Observation Conference

During this conference you will establish the focus of the observation. You will write about how you would conduct this conference, including the questions you would ask and what information you would expect to learn from the teacher to prepare you for the observation. You will also want to know that the teacher is prepared for the observation by making sure they know what to expect.


During the observation, you will watch one of the videos provided and will mark your observation form to collect the data needed to evaluate the instruction provided. This completed form must be submitted as a part of your assignment.

Post-Observation Conference

You will include, prior to beginning the conference, an analysis and an interpretation of the data you collected during the observation. You will then discuss your observation and your analysis of the data with the teacher and write a script of the conversation you will have with the teacher. This will include the questions you will ask, what their responses might be, and then your recommendations.

You will need to discuss the implications of the data by recommending any needed professional development and provide a prescription for instructional improvement. Based on this information, you will establish the focus for the next observation.

This assignment must be written in current APA format. Use a fictitious name for the teacher for privacy purposes.



            The clinical supervision method is a widely accepted method of observing teacher instruction in the classroom.  As mentioned by Glickman, Gordon, and Ross-Gordon (2018), the structure of clinical supervision generally follows the five steps of: preconference, observation, observation analysis, post-conference, and review.  These steps will all be utilized to observe a science lesson on the investigation-colloquium method by a teacher given the pseudonym Kyle Shannon.  The University of Virginia’s guide on How to select the right classroom observation tool stresses the benefit of using already established research-based observations tailored to specific subjects in order to obtain an objective observation with the right area of focus.  The science classroom observation protocol developed by RMC (research making change) Research Corporation in collaboration with LASER (leadership and assistance for science education reform) will be used to observe Kyle Shannon’s lesson on the investigation-colloquium method (Washington, 2010).  This protocol contains a science classroom observation rubric that is used for teacher observations and is added as attachment (1).

Pre-Observation Conference

The main objective of the pre-observation conference is for the administrator to describe the purpose and expectations of the observation.  The two main purposes of the observation are to first and foremost ensure that the students have an effective educational experience and to also help teachers receive objective feedback that can directly improve their instructional practices to enhance their professional development.  The pre-conference is also used to familiarize the teachers with the observation process, the specific traits he or she will be evaluated on, and the observation rubric.  As stated by Glickman, Gordon, and Ross-Gordon (2018, p. 269), “these determinations are made before the actual observation, so that both supervisor and teacher are clear about what will transpire;” stated another way, this conference helps the teacher and administrative evaluator be on the same page before the observation occurs.  These two main objectives, along with the teacher’s familiarity with this specific observational protocol and questions he or she may have, drive the pre-observation conversation.  The following is a likely conversation that would transpire:


Week One Quiz All Answers Correct

Question 1

The World Bank reports that roughly ________ percent of the world’s population is poor.

A. 90

B. Correct Answer: 80

C. 75

D. 50

Question 2

U.S. companies monopolize much of the international entertainment media, which largely portrays U.S. products and lifestyles as glamorous and appealing. This situation would most likely be used as an example of ________.

Correct! cultural imperialism

cultures becoming more fragmented

the spread of high-context cultures

the stronger work ethic typical of developed countries

Question 3

Which of the following best defines international business?

It includes all business transactions in countries other than your home country.

Correct! It includes all business transactions involving two or more countries, whether the transactions are conducted by private or governmental organizations.

It includes all private economic flows between two or more countries.

It includes all public economic flows between two or more countries.

Question 4

According to the Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI), ________.

MNEs cannot be part of the process of setting ethical employment practices since they are the problem in the first place

Correct! no harsh or inhumane treatment of workers should be allowed

employment need not be freely chosen in order to be acceptable

child labor cannot be used unless there are no suitable alternatives

Question 5

Which of the following has caused consumers to demand access to foreign-made products?

Expectations of rising prices of foreign products have caused consumers to seek foreign products before their prices become prohibitive.

Fearing that their governments will enact restrictive policies on imports, consumers are stocking up on foreign products before restrictions are put in place.

Correct! Consumers have become more efficient in using media and technologies to compare prices worldwide.

Declining global affluence has caused consumers to seek out lower-priced products from abroad.

Mexican American Past and History

Question One: The Impact the Course has had in My Understanding of Mexican American History

The Mexican Americans’ story inextricably correlates to the fortunes of the U.S. itself. Before 1854, a considerable chunk of the Western U.S. including much of California, Arizona. Nevada, Colorado, Texas, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Utah were part of Mexico. Through land purchases and war treaties, roughly 100000 Mexican came under the U.S. jurisdiction (Haynes & Wintz, 2016). In what was initially their land, these mew Americans were exposed to racial discrimination and other problems like low wages, lynching, and loss of property. By 1890 more than 75000 Mexicans were drown to the U.S. by the need for cheap labor. Additionally consequent to the Mexican Revolution that occurred in the 1920s, a massive wave of Mexican immigrants went to the U.S. to seek safety. The course has greatly enhanced my understanding of different aspects of Mexican Americans like factors that motivate their long-standing migration to the U.S., their experiences in the 19th and 20th century, challenges they have faced and their future in the U.S.

Concerning the experiences of Mexicans in the U.S., I have realized that Many Mexican-Americans, especially those residing in the southwestern states did not cross the border because a large portion of the American Southwest was initially found in the Mexican territory. Many people living in that area trace their residency in the U.S. from the mid-19th century and earlier (Haynes & Wintz, 2016). Texas was part of Mexico before it gained its independence in the 1830s and joined the U.S. in 1845. Mexico resented Texas independence, creating tensions which led to the U.S.-Mexican War that lasted between 1846 and 1848. The war ended with the establishment of the Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty.

Pursuing the course has enabled me to understand the challenges faced by Mexican Americans in the U.S. Mexicans were treated brutally by the Anglo-Americans in the 19th and 20th century. Many incidences of oppression and racial discrimination were witnessed as Mexican Americans were exposed to hatred and violence. A perfect example can be derived from the 1931 incident whereby Mexican Americans were arrested in Los Angeles by police officers and dragged into vehicles for deportation (Martinez, 2018). In the incidents, immigration officers detained more than 400 Mexican-Americans and deported them to Mexico without considering their migration status or citizenship.

Discussion Psychology Questions II

Describe the ways in which Berkeley’s writings are consistent with the epistemological philosophy of idealism.

When we see objects, we never doubt whether they, in fact, exist as physical objects in the real world. We often consider the physical matters we can touch, see and feel as separate entities from the ideas that we have about them. Berkley is however opposed to this and proposes that it is only ideas that exist (Goodwin, 2015). For him, only the mental ideas can be attributed to the reality. These mental ideas are formed due to our daily experiences, and this is what can actually be considered as knowledge. Therefore, knowledge and reality are in our mental images but not in the physical objects.

According to Berkley, the ordinary objects that exist in our daily lives are simply collections of ideas which are dependent on our minds. Berkley asserts that reality is fundamentally a mental construction, in other words, immaterial but not in the physical, visible materials (Goodwin, 2015). He was inarguably an idealist. Berkley’s contention that the ideas make up the physical world is encapsulated in the famous principle of that ‘to be is to be perceived’ (Esse is percipi). In his writings, Berkley acted consistently on the idealistic epistemological foundations. This has been accounted for in the Principles of Human Knowledge on the first thirty-three sections.

Berkley opens his discussion by clearly implying that ideas are the immediate items of knowledge in the basic sense (Goodwin, 2015). Ideas are perceived as objects of knowledge because there is something that construes or knows them, imagines them and remembers about them. Berkley refers to this as the ‘spirit’ or the ‘mind.’ He further defends his two theses: idealism and immaterialism on metaphysics in the Three Dialogues. He presupposes that it is the ideas that exist in our minds that make us believe in the objects which are the visible reality. If we have no ideas about the physical objects in our environment, we can hardly decipher what the objects are. For instance, the notion of a chair exists in our minds. We have specific characteristics that we presume that a chair must have such that any time we see a four-legged furniture with a surface and a back we call it a chair. This is a mental idea. Thus, knowledge is based on mental formations but not in the physical objects.

The American Civil War Final Exam

Industry versus Farming     

By the mid and late 1800s, the northern states had moved their economies from farming to industry and a greater population lived in the major cities (Couttenier, 2012). The South had upheld a large-scale farming economy which majorly relied on the slave labor. While the South needed many slaves to sustain their farms, the North no longer needed them. The Northern states subscribed to the belief that slavery was evil.

The Rights of States

There was a heated debate on the division of powers between the states and the federal government (Couttenier, 2012). The constitution was written in the states and the Southerners felt that the federal government was exploiting them by denying them their powers and rights.

Bleeding Kansas

The government passed an Act in which the residents of Kansas were to vote to be either a free state or a slave state. There were numerous supporters of both sides which led to a fight. People were killed in the fight hence the name Bleeding Kansas (Couttenier, 2012). In 1861, Kansas was declared a free state.

The Election of Abraham Lincoln and Secession

Lincoln subscribed to the anti-slavery Republican Party. The Southerners felt that the newly elected president was against them (Couttenier, 2012). At this point the war was inevitable and no effort would change the fate. The Southern states wanted to depart from the union of the United States. They wanted to form a new country Confederate States of America. Lincoln sent troops to stop this decision. This was the point when the war began.

Juvenile Probation and Aftercare Services


Traditionally, juvenile probation was conducted under the premise of child saving which focused on preventing juvenile offending by intervening in the youths’ lives. Currently, most court-ordered services are rendered through juvenile probation. Using probation, juvenile offending can be managed in three phases— community sanctions, diverting from formal punishment and aftercare. Juvenile aftercare encompasses a series of reiterative services developed to prepare offending youths placed initially out of their homes for transition into the community. Juvenile aftercare programs are primarily geared toward reducing the cases of reoffending among the youths. Youths on parole may be enrolled in many programs like restorative programs, counseling programs, skill enhancement programs, and coordinated services. Probation officers also play pivotal roles in the lives of probationers. Some roles played by probation officers include a social broker, social services, and law enforcement. Although probation is a standard tool in the criminal justice system, some scholars have criticized it as a revolving door, whereby juveniles get rearrested for similar crimes while still undergoing supervision. The present essay has provided an in-depth discussion of the concept of juvenile justice system, with a focus on the probation process, aftercare practice, services provided, roles of probation officers and juvenile probation policies.

Key Words: Probation, probation officers, juvenile parole, aftercare, juvenile probation policies

Juvenile Probation and Aftercare Services

Juvenile parole is the most widely used and the oldest vehicle through which a huge chunk of court-ordered services is rendered. Probation is an essential tool used within the system, in managing juvenile delinquency in different phases— community sanction, aftercare and diverting from incarceration or formal prosecution (Rudes, Viglione & Taxman, 2011). As a critical portion of the juvenile justice system, probation officials act as mediators between rehabilitation and punishment of offending youths especially in the U.S. with specific management responsibilities for addressing the juvenile offenders’ unmet needs. Despite the critical role played by probation officers, research has uncovered that probation has a  critical but small impact on juvenile outcomes. Similarly, some scholars have suggested that enhancements like police partnerships outdoor adventure and job preparation may offer some improvements over standard probation.

Unlike the adult justice system, juvenile probation has traditionally been conducted under the premise of child protection, which duels on preventing delinquency by intervening in the youth’s lives. Reclaiming Futures is a perfect model that incorporates this concept. The model presents three specific objectives for the youth— better treatment to address the needs of the youth, more treatment to identify those in need of treatment, assess personal needs and connect juveniles to treatment, and beyond treatment to encourage the association of youths with community partnerships, pro-social activities and adult mentors. Rudes, Viglione, and Taxman (2011) argue that communities which adopt the Reclaiming Futures model attain significant improvements regarding juvenile justice quality. Such an argument can be used to explain the increased application of this model in administering youth justice in different jurisdictions.

The Juvenile Probation Process

Since the beginning of 21st-century terrorism has been one of the major threats to the global community. Currently, several terrorist groups like ISIS, Boko Haram, Taliban, and Al-Shabaab are sponsoring terrorist activities in their countries as well in other nations. Despite the increased terrorist threats, nations seem to be doing little to combat dreadful terrorist activities. The inability to get rid of this security issue can be attributed to the pervasive technology that aids terrorists to widen their network including coordination of activities. As such, the United States, the superior and most technologically and militarily developed country in the world is also living under the fear of terrorism. If America can whimper because of terrorism, then terrorism is a critical global problem without any particular nation deemed to have the possible solution. Global terrorist attacks have had severe impacts including psychological trauma and instilling fear on the victims. For example, September 11, 2001, which was carried on the American soil caused severe injuries, deaths and psychological suffering among the victims. Following the September 11 attack, the United States developed some security departments which have been effective in counteracting terrorism activities in the country. The success of the anti-terrorism departments could not have been achieved without the combined efforts of other security organs in America (Holgersson & Strandh, 2016). In America, security agencies have been established to deal with terrorism at different levels. The federal government undertakes most of the efforts to cut off terrorist activities, and it in the light of counterterrorism agencies at the federal level: the research paper highlights the U.S. government’s role in homeland security programs; examines the motivation of terrorist group activities against the Americans and identifies the strengths and weaknesses of American homeland security’s counterterrorism policies and tactical response options to terrorism.

Comparing Washington Square Book with the Heiress Film

How fair is it to compare an original novel with its film? Concerning William Wyler’s The Heiress, a film adapted from the Washington Square by Henry James the matter is more than complicated. First, the screenplay directed by Goetz is not grounded on the Novel but extracted from their play, The Heiress produced in 1948 on Broadway. Second, Goetz’s claim in the film’s title sequence and the play script, both the film and its cinematic rendering are merely suggested by the original novel (Raw 243). To summarize, the characters who suffer in the story, find happiness at last in the play. Hence the unpredictable transformation of materials in changing from one medium to another is executed willingly by James himself. A comparison of Washington Square and The Heiress, then should not focus on how the original novel is violated by the film, at the expense of the dominant principle of adaptation, nor must it view one as an interpretation of the other. Instead, the comparison must weigh the unusual twists and transformations concerning their appropriateness to the artistic wholes. The current essay will provide an in-depth comparison of Washington Square novel by Henry James and Wyler’s The Heiress with a primary focus on the main character Catherine.

Question 1: <21{1[1(01)01]}> Since Jessica’s participation in local politics increased significantly after she joined her school’s political science club, it is clear that her involvement in that club led her to take an interest in politics.
The argument above is flawed because:

  • It doesn’t say which political issues Jessica is interested in.
  • It states that the only purpose of the political science club is to spark an interest in politics.
  • It misuses the word “significantly.”
  • Correct!: it’s possible that an interest in politics caused Jessica to join the political science club.

Question 2: <11{1[3(02)02]}> Catherine goes to her local movie theater only to see romantic comedies. Since Catherine did not go to the movies yesterday, there is not a romantic comedy playing at her local theater.
The reasoning above is flawed because the evidence:

  • Correct!: Does not suggest that Catherine goes to see every romantic comedy that plays at her local movie theater.
  • Implies that Catherine is uninterested in most types of movies.
  • Does not indicate whether Catherine watches only romantic comedies at home.
  • Suggests that Catherine’s local movie theater hardly ever shows romantic comedies.

Question 3: <11{1[4(23)23]}> People have claimed that Jamie’s paintings have given them the blues. Clearly this cannot be entirely correct, since many of Jamie’s paintings contain no blue at all.
The argument above is flawed because the author:

  • Is not a noted painting expert.
  • Relies on contradictory facts.
  • Correct!: Misinterprets a key term.
  • Provides no evidence.

Question 4: <11{1[2(06)06]}> Reporter: A new campaign finance reform bill being considered by Congress would limit the amount of campaign contributions that political candidates can receive. However, a survey of candidates running for mayor, governor, and senate seats shows that not one of them favors the bill. Clearly, there is no desire among politicians to limit campaign contributions.
Which one of the following points out the flaw in the reporter’s argument above?

  • Correct Answer: The views of candidates currently running for office do not necessarily represent the views of all politicians.
  • The reporter wrongly assumes that no politician has ever supported a bill intended to limit campaign contributions.
  • The evidence provided by the reporter suggests that most politicians are in favor of the new bill.
  • The reporter doesn’t indicate the amount that the new bill would limit campaign contributions.