Family and Friends: Who is more Important

People interact with their families and friends at different levels. However, it is always challenging to determine among the two groups of people, which one is more important. Both family and friends plays different roles in ones live, making it hard for and individual to decide who should be first in the list. Family is more important than friends since they tend to be more helpful in our lives than our friends. Family forms the basic social unit in one’s life. It is through family whereby someone is brought up from a tender age until he attains an age of 18 years or becomes an adult. During the development process someone is provided with all necessary resources including education, medication, food and other necessities that are crucial for the growth and development of a human being. At the young age, mother, who is a member of the family breastfeeds her kids, nurtures them and takes care of them till they start to crawl and move by their own.
The role of the family do not end when one becomes independent as it extends to the old age. When an individual attains the senior age and they unable to do certain things by themselves they seek help from their family members. At old age majority of the people are unable to walk without supporting aids like walking sticks and wheelchairs and they will be in dire need of the family support. As much as family members are essential part of one’s life, friendly also plays their role. Friends offers a lot assistance including providing accommodation, offering financial need, doing classwork, or any other activity that a friend indeed would do. However, their role in one’s life cannot match that of the parents, brothers or sisters. Family members will always be important in one’s life than friends.

Key Skills of Effective Nursing Leaders

Introduction 

As a nurse you have a role in increasing the public visibility and credibility of your profession. You are developing the skills and knowledge to influence public opinion and actions related to issues of the health and well-being of society. All nurses have some responsibility to be “leaders” and to influence the thinking and action of others on matters of health in a positive way.

The goal of this assignment is to give you an opportunity to practice some of the key skills of effective nursing leaders such as communication, advocacy, and negotiation. In other words the goal of this assignment is to give you practice at becoming influential.

Directions 

1. Before you begin, review Chapter 12 (Telling Nursing’s Story) in Becoming Influential (Sullivan, 2013).

2. Decide on your message. Chose an issue, quality, concern, or characteristic related to the profession of nursing about which you would like the public to know more. You might get inspiration from your experiences in the program or from reading you have done.

3. Determine how you could best share your message with the public and which sector of the public would be most appropriate to share your message with. Who is the most appropriate target for your message? For example, is your message about a particular concern related to health care that you could share with your MP or a national lobby group in order to influence legislation or public policy? Is your message related to a local health issue that might be most appropriately shared through a Letter to the Editor of your local newspaper?4. Based on your thinking from point 3 write your message in an appropriate form to the agency or person you have selected.

5. Summarize your process in a 3-4 page double-spaced paper, excluding the title and reference pages, that includes the following headings:

Deciding on My Message

How did you select the issue, quality, concern or characteristic about the profession of nursing that you wanted the public to know more about? What is the theme of your message? Why do you think this message is important? What do you hope to accomplish by sharing your message?

Deciding on How to Share My Message

How would you share your message to have the most influence? Describe how you would choose an appropriate target for your message. What person, agency, or institution would you select and why? What considerations would influence the format, timing, and follow-up of your submission? What obstacles might you face and how would you overcome these? What negation and advocacy skills would you need to get your message out?

My Message

Append your message in the format you have chosen. NOTE: please do not actually send your message at this point.

What I Learned From This Assignment – Discuss what you learned from this assignment. Why do you think that nursing is seldom mentioned in media discussions related to health care? How do you think you can become more influential in this regard? What will you do to increase the visibility and credibility of your profession in the future?
Assignment 2 Marking Guide-Becoming Influential (20%) Due at the end of Unit 8

  • The three areas of discussion are included: a description of how you selected your message; a discussion of how you determined the content for your message and the target audience for your message; and a discussion of what you learned from the assignment.
  • The discussion of these topics is reflective and includes appropriate references to course materials.
  • The assignment includes insights into how you can become more influential.
  • The submission is focused on the topic, effectively written, and appropriate for the target person/audience selected.

Management and Leadership in Nursing Practice

Design Your Own Healthcare Organization Project. You have spent the past few months reading the course material related to Management and Leadership in Nursing Practice (Nursing 432) and hopefully you have gained some new knowledge and understanding. Now, you have been given the opportunity to apply some of what you have learned in a ?real-life? exercise where you will design your own health care workplace. You were the successful candidate for the following job ad?

Required:

A hard-working, intelligent nurse manager/leader who has current knowledge of the principles of leadership and management. The successful applicant has read the course readings and has successfully completed the unit objectives for Nursing 432. The incumbent has the opportunity to create a new health care unit or organization. This new unit or organization can be a new nursing unit in a large urban hospital, a community health facility, a remote rural health clinic, or another type of health care organization where nurses are employed.

The board expects a written submission of approximately 10-12 typed double-spaced pages, excluding title and reference pages, at the completion of this project. The final submission should include references to current literature on nursing management and leadership. References must be in APA format (6th ed).

Sections to Include in Your Project
Determine the type of unit or organization you are developing. Give your organization a name. Describe the mission statement and values of your organization.
Draw an organizational chart for your organization including yourself (the head person) in the chart.
Describe yourself at the head of your unit or organization ? will you be a leader or manager? What attributes or characteristics will you have or seek to develop? How will you go about developing them?
Describe five strategies you will use to empower staff members.
Describe one team that will function in your organization ? include a description of your rationale for forming this team and describe how you will ensure the group will function effectively.
On the first day your new unit opens you come across two nurses having a heated debate in the hallway related to how supplies are ordered for the unit. Describe how you would handle this situation.
Assignment 4 Marking Guide ? Designing an Organization (25%) Due at the end of Unit 12

Max and Peter Case Studies

Scenario 1: 

Max is a young man living in a youth hostel. He is not happy with his case worker visiting on Thursday afternoons because he wants to go footy training at this time. He doesn’t know how to raise it with his case worker who is very busy and says she is only able to visit Thursdays when she is in the area. Max takes part in a focus group, which has been set up by a project worker to gain feedback about the hostel program, where he raises the issue of the clash.

Q 1: What are two processes that could have been put in place for Max to act earlier?

Q 2: How could Max’s issue get included in management processes?

Q 3: How could the program be modified to meets Max’s needs? Provide two suggestions.

Scenario 2: 

Peter is a support worker in a disability service. Sally, a new person he is interviewing and developing an individual plan with, uses a wheelchair.

Q 1: What sort of things should he be asking about to assess Sally’s individual needs? List at least four topics.

Q 2: What are two possible barriers that could limit Sally’s participation?

Q 3: What are two preferences that may impact on Sally’s personal plan?

Q 4: How can Peter make sure Sally is able to give feedback on the service she receives and that it is acted on? Identify at least two strategies.

Scenario 3: 

You are a project worker in a community house. A new program has been developed to encourage the growth of community gardens in the neighbourhood. Local government, the local primary school and a local nursery are all partners in the project. One of the objectives of the program is to integrate some newly arrived refugees into the program. The refugees are from Syria.

Q 1: How might you ensure staff are culturally aware in relation to people from Syria and what type of external group might you draw on to facilitate this?

Q 2: What methods could you use to communicate roles and responsibilities to the local nursery staff?

Q 3: What are two documents you may develop as part of the program planning to set up the gardens and recruit participants?

Amy Tan’s Language Analysis in Mother Tongue

Amy Tang brings into light discrimination that sprouts whenever someone speaks in broken English. Throughout the story, Tan uses her mother’s speech to show how limited English knowledge and understanding can be challenging. The story begins by pointing out different English languages that Tan speaks while communicating with her mother and others. Firstly, Tan is not fluent in speaking English but later emerges as the writer of the same language. Tan’s mother is struggling and facing difficulties and prejudice due to her fractured English. As an English Second Language speaker, Tan examines her linguistic identity, her mother’s variations while speaking English as well as her relationship with her mother that perhaps shapes her new view of linguistic identity.Tan uses different styles to present herself as a non-native who is struggling to establish her linguistic identity. Despite the obstacles, in the end, she becomes a great writer, and this is well-illustrated when she says she is a writer, but not a scholar (Comley et al., 77). Tan is courageous to tell her audience that she is fond of English since it makes her happy and plays a fundamental role in her life. “Language is the tool of my trade. And I use them all – all the Englishes I grew up with” (Comley et al., 79). In her quote, Tan points out that she is not an English native speaker, and as such in her family there have been different variations of Englishes, meaning broken English and that could only be understood at her family level. At this point, Tan clearly states that it is challenging to communicate with others using several styles of language.

Tan presents her mother as a person who speaks many Englishes, and she has showcased that by using different words to describe her mother’s English as limited, fractured and broken. However, she views her mother’s English from the perspective of the mother tongue. Many of Englishes her mother speaks are due to first language influence and as such she terms her mother’s English as impeccable. Tan’s turn of events to praise her mother’s language appears as a surprise to many. However, for Tan, her mother’s English is not broken and limited as perceived by many. “Some say they understand none of it as if she were speaking pure Chinese, But to me, my mother’s English is perfectly clear, perfectly natural” (Comley et al., 80). She asserts that due to cultural background, her mother’s English should be understood and embraced. Tan, an established English writer by now, set the new lens that people should use when judging others based on their language. Tan challenges the audience to accept the different variations of the English language and avoid English-based prejudice and discrimination.

Tan outlines the struggles of learning English when she narrated her relationship with her mother when she was young.  Perhaps, the challenges that she faced with her mother while growing up influenced her to explore linguistic identity from a different perspective. Her relationship with her mother and her experience in school taught her that English comes in many styles, and there is no correct form of English. As a result, people should avoid prejudice and embrace Englishes that results from other native languages.  Tan discusses how the difference in linguistic identities can negatively affect people due to cultural differences. She pokes holes on the discrimination and prejudice that is directed towards people who speak broken and limited English. Tan advocates for different Englishes, speaking styles and variations and calls for the respect of cultural-influenced languages even if their English styles are not acceptable by the dominant community.

Psychological Changes in Pregnant Woman

Describe the psychological changes that take place during pregnancy, specifically during each trimester, and how the mother’s partner can respond to the pregnancy.

Pregnancy is one of the most celebrated events in the woman’s life, especially when she was psychologically prepared, and ready to conceive. Despite the happiness, a pregnant woman experiences mixed reactions including intense depression, fatigue and worrisome. During pregnancy women become worried of the possible bodily challenges, the capability of being mothers, particularly for the first time mothers and fear of childbirth as discussed by (Rathus, Nevid, and Fichner, 2017). The studies shows that such changes are good since they help a woman to adapt and prepare for the motherhood. The levels of emotions, fear and worry continue to vary as the pregnancy develops leading to different psychological changes at different stages of the pregnancy, which are first trimester, second trimester and third trimester.Psychological changes are usually emotionally instigated and they are characterized by moods and attitudes, which are mainly caused by hormonal changes in the body. Besides the hormone variations, women psychological changes especially during the first trimester might be caused  by external factors such as fear of losing independence, negative attitude towards life after birth, family support, financial concerns and whether the conception was planned or unplanned. At this stage, a woman would experience psychological changes such as joy, happiness, excitement, tearfulness, worry, anticipation and disbelief (Rathus, Nevid, and Fichner, 2017). The emotional fluctuations during this trimester can either be positive or negative depending on several factors such as pregnancy ailments or external factors mentioned above.

The second trimester is characterized by the lessened emotional fluctuations, which studies attribute to reduction of progesterone levels in the woman’s body. The pregnancy-related ailments such as nausea and insomnia also reduce, and as a result, the negative feelings drop. At this stage, a lot of pregnant women would have adapted to the changes in their body, and as such the case of depression and anxiety are much lower than the first trimester. However, as it is in the first trimester, the cases of fatigue may continue especially when the woman lacks enough iron in the body.

The third trimester marks, the last stage of the woman pregnancy and it is one of the most tiresome phases. The pregnancy grows increasing the weight, which often disturbs the woman’s sleep. The psychological condition of a woman at this stage can be almost related to the first trimester. The emotional fluctuations increases as mother continues to feel more discomfort as a result of increased backache, tiredness and insomnia. The third trimester marks the link between the end of pregnancy and the transition to the motherhood, and as such, a mother and her partner would experience severe psychological changes such as internal reorganization,  external  reorganization and pregnancy-related anxiety.

The internal reorganization exercised by mother and her partner in the last trimester involves rediscovering their self-identities of translating into parenthood. The external reorganization entails the mother reflecting her relationship  with other family members once she gives birth. The pregnancy related anxiety involves the repetition of the psychological changes experienced during the first and second trimesters. The psychological changes in the third trimester are mainly in line with reflective functioning, mental representation and object relationship. In the last phase of pregnancy women reflect on their state of mind, and appreciate their status. The mental representation at this stage helps the expectant woman to imagine the new changes in her life that are likely to happen that perhaps she has never experienced. The mental representation is a crucial practice since it helps the woman to psychologically adapt parenthood transition that is about to  occur. The object relationship makes a woman to view herself as a mother my identifying her motherhood to her own mother.Pregnancy is accompanied by major psychological transformations in women. It is the beginning of new journey that ends once she becomes a parent. The transition to the new identify of a parent presents a series of complicated psychological process to the women. A woman has to adapt to several changes including emotional fluctuations and anxiety of a being a mother.

Describe the factors of marital satisfaction and if there is a link between sexual satisfaction and marital satisfaction.

Marriage is like a flower, and it if not taken care of, it will eventually wither. Several studies have conclude that one of the key determinants of the emotional stability among the partners in marriage is the marital satisfaction. In successful marriages, both the females and males are satisfied by one another. In the last two decades, studies have linked marital satisfaction to several factors including  communication, personality qualities, sexual satisfaction, belief and demographic similarities, partner attachment and love.

People may be interested by those who they believe or they appear to share certain similar characteristics, a tendency which is known as homogamy. Homogamy is associated with several aspects including similarity in religious beliefs, attractiveness, socioeconomic status, physical attractiveness and same age (Rathus, Nevid, and Fichner, 2017).. The case of hegemony is true because in the cultural diversity context, people would mainly select partners whom they share similar traits, for example, racial or ethnic characteristics. Homogamy has been found to reduce marital problems since partners who share same backgrounds, personalities and attitudes are unlikely to engage in conflicts as proved by several studies.Personality qualities is another factor that is linked to romantic relationships. For example, persons who possess impressive personality qualities are likely to keep their partners happy unlike the neuroticism, and as such the people with negative attitude experience negative marital outcomes. Unlike neuroticism, the spouses who are extraverts tend to have joyful and happy marriage, which in return translates into marital satisfaction. However, the extraversion has been found to have more positive results on females than on males, with wives’ extraversion increasing marital happiness among the husbands.  Other factors that increases marital satisfaction are conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness in marriage. When the three factors are practiced, the spouse feels free and close to another since they trust each other.

Sexual satisfaction is a debatable factor on whether it is a determinant of marital satisfaction. Several studies have been conducted to explore the debate, and they have conclusively found that sexual satisfaction has a direct connection with  marital happiness. However, the psychological studies have argued that sexual satisfaction will lead to marital satisfaction if they are characterized by positive behaviors from both partners. For example, a partner will be more satisfied if her colleague offers compliments, shows non-sexual affection and expresses attraction and love as put forward by (Rathus, Nevid, and Fichner, 2017).

Marital satisfaction does not occur naturally, but through conformance to  certain factors. A partner will be interested in one another if they share similar personal qualities. Perhaps this explains why marriages of spouse of similar race or ethnicity tends to work out compared to racially mixed marriages.  Joy, happiness and openness also contribute to marriage satisfaction, and especially when they are expressed by the wife. Finally, sexual satisfaction is another fundamental aspect behind a happy marriage. However, it works effectively if it is accompanied by attraction and love.

Stroke Rehabilitation: Meri Case Study

Stroke rehabilitation is a fundamental step for speeding up the recovery of post-stroke patients. The core goal of the rehabilitation is to help the patient relearn the skills that they lost when they were affected by a stroke that damaged or affected a certain part of the brain as it is the case with Meri. Undertaking Meri through rehabilitation will help her to regain her ability to do things by herself and improve her quality of life as well. Meri rehabilitation will start as soon as possible as argued by Bernhardt, Indredavik, & Langhorne (2015) that starting stroke rehabilitation earlier increases the chances of regaining lost skills and abilities. The duration that Meri will take while undergoing rehabilitation may be a bit longer than usual since her condition appears critical. A number of assessments tool can be applied in Meri’s case to identify her needs and help her overcome her situation, but the most applicable ones in this situation are Functional Capacity Evaluation and Berg Balance Scale.

Functional Capacity Evaluation

Matheson (2013) defined Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE) as a “systematic method of measuring an individual’s ability to perform meaningful tasks on a safe and dependable basis” (p. 2). In the Meri’s case, Functional Capacity Evaluation can be applied to assess whether the patient will be safe while doing tasks by herself, assess the necessary treatment programs that Meri might need to recover fully and become independent and evaluate her ability to handle hand-related jobs and other functions with coordination and endurance as studied by (Franck, Smeets, & Seelen, 2017). FCE has been instrumental in helping the rehabilitators to assess the patient’s job-demand needs (Teasell, 2018). Using this tool, the rehabilitator will be able to tell Meri’s task environment demands and take appropriate actions to match her capacity with the job demands. For example, Meri is staying alone, but with the daily help from her sister. As such, it will be necessary for the rehabilitator to use the Functional Capacity Evaluation tool to determine whether Meri can handle her personal needs. The above step should be followed by using the same tool to assess Meri’s role performance improvement by establishing the functional decrements and taking appropriate measures to resolve the decline. The identified performance of Meri will be corrected by putting her under the right treatment programs and monitoring the treatment progress to determine whether it is positively helping the patient. Finally, the FCF will be used to establish the ability to coordinate hand-related jobs with other functions and with endurance.

Berg Balance Scale

Originally, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) was developed to evaluate the balance in senior citizen and later adopted as a fall-risk assessment tool, although of late its use has been extended to incorporate non-fall risks (Donoghue & Stokes, 2016).  “BBS is a 14-item scale that uses quantitative figures to assess the balance and fall risks among the adults through direct observation of their performance” (Song, Lee, & Shin, 2018, p. 103). Putting into consideration that Meri has had a fracture on her brain, she is old and a post-stroke patient, the BBS is the most suitable to tool assess her performance and safety balance as she enters the rehabilitation stage. Besides, the development of BBS was intended for the population with acute stroke, as argued by (Blum & Korner, 2014). Using the BBS tool, the rehabilitator can assess Meri’s supportive needs since the tool can objectively determine the ability and inability of the patient’s balance safety while undertaking certain predetermined tasks as presented by (Stevenson, 2010). The rehabilitator can first start by undertaking her through the tasks that will help her to address her personal needs.Post-stroke rehabilitation is a crucial step in helping the patients to retain their original statues and abilities. However, that will not be possible without the appropriate assessment tools that will help to identify the patients’ needs as examined in Meri’s case. In the case, the Functional Capacity Evaluation and Berg Balance Scale are the right tools since they help to assess Meri’s functional ability and safety balance, respectively.

Personality Development through ConditioningPROMPT:   ANSWER ALL 5 QUESTIONS

  1. Explain how a personality develops through shaping and conditioning.
  2. Imagine that TWO of the theorists below were invited to speak at a symposium on personality theory development and are both on the stage. Someone in the audience raises her hand and asks, “So what do you think was your theory’s greatest contribution to our current understanding of human personality?” What would each of the theorists you chose say in answer to the question? Choose from among Freud, Jung, Adler, Rogers, and Horney.
  3. What did you learn about your own personality from this course. What “spoke” to you…what did you learn about you? This question will be graded as rigorously as the other four on the exam, so be sure to support your answer with reference.
  4. Consider the implications of psychic determinism and what it means in terms of personality development and manifestation of personality in adulthood. Do you believe that everything you think and do is predetermined by earlier experiences? And what would that mean for your ability to change and grow?
  5. Describe Allport’s definition of a mature, adult personality. Allport described the persona as something vital and internal, yet external and false. How can this be?

INSTRUCTIONS:

APA FORMAT

TIMES NEW ROMAN 12 FONT

4 PARAGRAPHS FOR EACH QUESTION (MORE THAN 4 SENTENCES FOR EVERY PARAGRAPH)

Answers must be written narrative, paragraph form and kept within the bounds of an essay exam

Lists and/or sentence fragments also will not receive points.

SUMMARIZE IN OWN WORDS/NO IN TEXT CITATIONS AT ALL

PLEASE PARAPHRASE

NO GRAMMAR ISSUES/NO ERRORS

PLEASE SEPARATE EACH ANSWER TO EACH QUESTION!!!!!

2-3 CREDIBLE SCHOLARLY SOURCES REFERENCES FOR EACH QUESTION

Ethical Challenges in Accounting Profession

The goal of this assessment task is to test your knowledge and understanding of ethical and sustainability challenges faced by the accounting profession and apply best practice principles and recommendations related to appropriate business practice. There are two parts of this assessment task: Part A relates to ethical dilemmas and PART B is about sustainability challenges. Each part is described below:

PART A: Ethical Dilemmas – Issues and Solutions

Most accountants in business and the public sector, whether working in a small organisation or serving as the chief financial officer (CFO) of an international corporation, face ethical dilemmas during their professional careers. Ethical dilemmas come in many forms and accountants sometimes need support to address complex and challenging conflicts. Accountants may also treat ethical dilemmas as business decisions and not utilise their professional code to assess potential courses of action.

The CGMA survey report Managing Responsible Business, A Global Survey on Business Ethics shows that a 10%-15% increase since 2008 in organisations providing both statements of ethical values and a code of ethics, as well as related training, provision of hotlines, and incentives, such as performance-based rewards. The survey also shows an almost 20% increase in organisations both collecting and reporting ethical information. The majority of accountants feel it is important to collect and analyse ethical information, but one in five do not believe their organisation will do so in the near future. Despite an increase in ethical codes and training, there is greater pressure within organisations to act unethically. Security of information remains the biggest issue of concern across all markets. Bribery has risen from sixth to third in the rankings of issues of concern, reflected by the increase in anti-bribery and corruption legislation.

A common aspect to resolving ethical dilemmas is to help accountants define and apply the fundamental principles in their professional code of ethics. A distinguishing mark of the accountancy profession is the responsibility to act in the public interest and professional ethics places an expectation on accountants to self-regulate their behavior in accordance with the Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants (the Code) developed by the International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants (IESBA). The International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) member organisations are required to abide by ethical standards at least as stringent as those stated in the Code.

These standards may potentially be threatened by a broad range of circumstances including self-interest, self-review, advocacy, familiarity, and intimidation. An awareness and understanding of these circumstances will help us to establish which fundamental principles are affected by a situation and why.

Required:

Identify and describe THREE (3) ethical dilemmas after systematically reviewing recent media articles/postings/legislations/reports/journal articles/broadcast or social media. Gather the relevant facts and for each issue describe: why it is an ethical problem; Identify the affected parties -individuals, organisations and key stakeholders affected; in what way are they affected; how would these ethical issues affect the reputation of the accounting profession; how would these ethical issues affect the public interest; propose solution to each ethical issue and describe which fundamental principles are affected and what are the threats to compliance with the following fundamental principles of ethics developed by the International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants (IESBA):

  • Integrity
  • Objectivity
  • Professional competence and due care
  • Confidentiality
  • Professional behaviour
  • While writing your essay consider the following threats to fundamental principles:
  • Self interest
  • Self-review
  • Advocacy
  • Familiarity
  • Intimidation

Are there safeguards which can eliminate or reduce the threats to an acceptable level? For examples safeguards can be created by: profession, legislation and regulation; work environment; organisation’s internal procedures and policies; whistle-blowing procedure. (approximately 2,000 words length).

PART B: Sustainability–Challenges and Solutions

Sustainability is becoming more important for all organisations, across all industries. Over 62% of executives consider a sustainability strategy necessary to be competitive today, and another 22% think it will be in the future. Simply put, sustainability is a business approach to creating long term value by taking into consideration how a given organisation operates in the ecological, social and economic environment. Sustainability is built on the assumption that developing business strategies which foster organisation longevity.  As the expectations on corporate responsibility increase, and as transparency becomes more prevalent, professional accountants are recognising the need to act on sustainability. Professional communications and good intentions are no longer enough.

Required:

Identify and describe TWO (2) sustainability challenges, affecting accounting profession as well as threatening the existence of our planet. Propose solution to each challenges (approximately 1,000 words length).

Privatization of Prisons: Argumentative Essay

ACA Code of Ethics demands all members of the American Correctional Association, to be honest, show respect to individuality and human dignity, and be committed to professional service. However, with the privatization of correctional facilities and the attitude of the correctional officers towards the inmates, the concept of ethics may never be observed. The prisons, which are meant to shape the behavior of the convicts have been transformed into money-making and torturing hubs, and as such, the ethics that govern the correctional institutions are slowly eroding.  

Personal Stance on the Privatization of Prisons

As much as privatization has been useful in reducing the congestion in the government-run correctional institutions, it is not as effective as traditional-government facilities. The core goal of traditional prisons is to rehabilitate the convicts, while private prisons are more focused on generating profits. With the goal of profit in mind, it will be hard for private prisons to deliver quality services as the government-operated jails. A report presented by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) in 2016 showed that private prisons were more punitive, less safe, and less secure than publicly-run prisons (Vittert, 2017). Surprisingly, the report established that the inmate assault in the private prisons was at 30 percent, and the new inmates were being confined in solitary due to overcrowding. Bearing in mind that the main purpose of the correctional facilities is to shape the behavior of the offenders, with the private prisons profit motive, the rehabilitation goal is compromised, and as such, it is ethically wrong to delegate the duty of rehabilitating convicts to the private-run jails.

 Phasing Out Corporate-run Prisons

I support the Justice Department decision to do close down commercial prisons because they are doing more harm than good to the people whom they are supposed to serve. For example, Walnut Grove private prison was closed in 2016 for failure to observe human dignity (Vittert, 2017). The Justice Department found that the Walnut Grove lacked civilization face, and perhaps increased the criminality of the offenders rather than transforming them. For example, the cases rape among the young inmates by the senior prisoners, lack of medical care, and sexual relationship between the prison officers and the inmates reduced the probability of the victims being reformed. The studies show the environment shapes the behavior and the habit of an individual meaning exposing the inmates to the harsh conditions in the private jails will increase their immunity to rehabilitation. As such, I support the Justice Department’s decision to phase out corporate-run prisons.

Community Correction Programs

With the increase of correction institutional cost and crowding, the community corrections programs were introduced to overcome these challenges. The community-based correctional programs are also foundations of absorbing the victim in the societal life once the jail term ends.  However, the question remains whether such a program is burden and risk to the communities and citizens. To a certain degree, the community corrections program is a burden to society. The role of rehabilitating the convicts lies with the criminal justice system, and switching that duty partly to the community it is a burden because it is not the community responsibility to shape the behavior of the convicts. Nonetheless, putting into consideration that the victims are part of the community, and it is the same society they came from before being imprisoned, it is the role of the community to ensure a smooth transition of the victims from the jails to the society. As such, as much as the community corrections programs are the burden to the society, they are still good since they facilitate the full rehabilitation of the victim. The community-based correction programs offer a crucial avenue in finalizing the process of reforming the convict. If the offender reforms successfully, then the community corrections programs becomes a blessing other than a burden. Besides, some of the programs like study release and work release are beneficial to the community since they help in improving the social and economic statuses of society.The procedure of rehabilitating offenders within the community is a risky one. Firstly, the victims might not have rehabilitated to the level where they can be allowed to interact with the rest of the members of the community. As a result, they may end up harming the community and the citizens. For example, a convict who was convicted of murder or drug abuse when released in the community-based programs may readapt to their old habit and end up harming the citizens. The drug abusers and traffickers rereleased to the community while not fully transformed may introduce the same vices in the society, and as a result, put the community members at the risk of drug abuse effects. The studies have also shown that insufficient supervision of the victims in the community level increases the chances of recidivism (Clark, 2015). Unlike the correctional facilities, the community lack resources that can be used to help the offenders to reshape their behavior adequately. With the high chances of the offender committing similar or another crime, the community-based corrections programs put the community and the citizen at the risk of suffering from the negative vices associated with victims.

Correctional Officers Violating Ethical Code of Conduct

The correction officers who deliberately violates the corrections ethical standards should be punished or fired, meaning they will not work for any correctional facility again. Punishment can be either through the criminal justice system or disciplinary action within the prison department. If the officers go through the criminal justice system and they are imprisoned, they should be housed with the regular inmate population as a lesson of understanding the ideal situation experienced by the incarcerated offenders that the correctional officers and the entire criminal justice system are doing nothing or little to address.

Physical Punishment

Psychological studies have proved that physical punishment cannot deter crime. As such, there is no instance where corporal punishment can be said to be appropriate. Several studies conducted on the effects of corporal punishment have proven that it influences the victim to repeat the same act done to him on others. For example, if the inmates are whipped, they are likely to practice the same on the new inmates who are entering the jails. Based on the above facts, I do not support physical punishment since I think there is no circumstance it can be effective in modeling the offender’s behavior.